Find Real Estate Agents and Homes for Sale


Real Estate News --> News

Backing out of a real estate deal? A cautionary tale against strong-arm tactics


Shawn Lackie, a broker with Coldwell Banker-R.M.R. Real Estate in Durham region east of Toronto, says he has never encountered a situation in which one side registered a caution on title, but he does know of many cases of buyer's remorse over the spring ...

View Story

The subject who is truly loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures

@media (max-width:79.99rem) and (min-width:61.25rem){html.layout-story-2 .title-content--story>.l-row>.pb-container{-ms-flex:0 0 61.25rem;flex:0 0 61.25rem;max-width:61.25rem}}@media (min-width:61.25rem){.title-content--story.l-col-md-8{-webkit-box-flex:0;-ms-flex:0 0 60rem;flex:0 0 60rem;max-width:60rem}}@media (min-width:80rem){.title-content--story.l-col-lg-8{-webkit-box-flex:0;-ms-flex:0 0 70rem;flex:0 0 70rem;max-width:70rem}} .c-comments{margin-bottom:26px} .c-article-list__item-content a[href="/canada/british-columbia/article-story-will-return/"]{display:none !important} The Next Move Backing out of a real estate deal? A cautionary tale against strong-arm tactics Open this photo in gallery: Buyer’s regret has led to some unusually strong-arm legal tactics, lawyers report

Fernando Morales/The Globe and Mail Carolyn Ireland Published February 1, 2018 Updated February 1, 2018 For Subscribers { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ReportageNewsArticle", "mainEntityOfPage": "https://www.theglobeandmail.com/real-estate/toronto/backing-out-of-a-real-estate-deal-a-cautionary-tale-against-strong-arm-tactics/article37801532/", "headline": "Backing out of a real estate deal? A cautionary tale against strong-arm tactics", "description": "A house is sold, buyer opts out, seller digs in, buyer invokes ‘caution against title’ – see you in court", "datePublished": "2018-02-01T13:00:00Z", "dateModified": "2018-02-01T13:00:08.251Z" ,"author": [ { "@type": "Person", "name": "Carolyn Ireland", "url": "https://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/carolyn-ireland", "affiliation": { "@type": "Organization", "name": "The Globe and Mail" } } ] ,"image": { "@type":"ImageObject", "representativeOfPage":true, "url":"https://www.theglobeandmail.com/resizer/7k4e-YI5At2RLY1ABSBdmNN-tBg=/2048x0/filters:quality(80)/arc-anglerfish-tgam-prod-tgam.s3.amazonaws.com/public/Q6LOFYTNGNAK7HWAHHDU7LBBIU.JPG", "width":"2048", "height":"1364", "description":"Buyer’s regret has led to some unusually strong-arm legal tactics, lawyers report." }, "thumbnailUrl":"https://www.theglobeandmail.com/resizer/Fk7PkbUalCXrGNTEjsJaLjuP6oI=/620x0/filters:quality(80)/arc-anglerfish-tgam-prod-tgam.s3.amazonaws.com/public/Q6LOFYTNGNAK7HWAHHDU7LBBIU.JPG" , "publisher": { "@type":"Organization", "name":"The Globe and Mail", "url":"https://www.theglobeandmail.com", "sameAs":["https://www.facebook.com/theglobeandmail/","https://twitter.com/globeandmail","https://plus.google.com/+globeandmail/","https://www.youtube.com/user/TheGlobeandMail"], "logo": { "@type":"ImageObject", "url": "https://www.theglobeandmail.com/resources/assets/img/tgam-logo.png", "width": 310, "height": 36 } } } When a lawyer is standing in front of a judge clutching an emergency motion, the case rarely concerns a real estate deal gone wrong

But Toronto-based lawyer Albert Frank recently raced to the courthouse to untangle a real estate twist he'd never before encountered in 30 years of practice

Mr

Frank was representing a couple who sold their three-bedroom house in Markham, Ont

Three weeks before the closing date of Sept

28, the buyer's lawyer let the sellers know his client did not plan to close the deal

She also wanted her $50,000 deposit back

Story continues below advertisement As the couple scrambled to find replacement buyers, the twist no one saw coming was that the first buyer's lawyer then registered a "caution against title" on the property

Mr

Frank had never encountered such a tactic, but he knew that the replacement transaction – scheduled to close on Nov

30 – was at risk

He viewed the caution as an attempt to strong arm the sellers into agreeing to give up the deposit

"I thought it was pretty nervy

It was bizarre

It's not supposed to be used as a club to get your desposit back." He urgently needed his motion heard by a judge in order to get the caution removed before the replacement buyers walked away

"The deal's going to die," he said at the time

Mr

Frank won his legal argument

The case was settled and the defendant was on the hook for the sellers' costs in getting the caution removed

The saga mirrors the turmoil in the Greater Toronto Area real estate market in 2017 and reveals some of the pitfalls in unwinding an agreement of purchase and sale

Mr

Frank says he met two other lawyers at the courthouse who had recently handled similar cases

"I looked back about 100 years," into precedent-setting cases, he says

"I'd never heard of this concept." Story continues below advertisement Story continues below advertisement His search turned up only one or two examples over that time, so he was surprised to hear the practice has become more common of late

He believes more cases could appear if the market goes through more volatility

"It's going to continue to happen as long as there are buyers out there who regret signing up to buy." During an interview in his 48th-floor boardroom in Toronto's financial district, Mr

Frank said he hopes his legal win will educate other lawyers and their clients about the risks of attempting such a strategy

"If you're bold enough to register a caution, you're likely to get into trouble if you're responsible for messing up a further deal." Agreements were collapsing on a fairly regular basis in 2017 as some buyers bid outrageous amounts during the market's unharnessed run in the opening months of the year and then tried to renegotiate the price or walk away as the market suddenly came to a halt

Shawn Lackie, a broker with Coldwell Banker-R.M.R

Real Estate in Durham region east of Toronto, says he has never encountered a situation in which one side registered a caution on title, but he does know of many cases of buyer's remorse over the spring and summer of last year

Real estate agents on both sides typically warn that the scrap could end up in litigation and, not only could the buyer lose his or her deposit, the sellers may sue for the amount they lost if the second deal is at a lower price

Story continues below advertisement The sellers, meanwhile, are advised that, while they may ultimately win in court, the matter would likely drag on for months

In Mr

Lackie's opinion, striking a compromise is the better way to go

"If sanity prevails, the seller accepts an offer from the same buyer for less than originally agreed upon," he says

"Although it may have been far less than originally agreed upon, in many cases, the sum is still considerably more than their asking price and, in some cases, a lot more than they had any right to expect." Mr

Lackie says that, a few months ago, he represented a spurned homeowner who held out for the original price for a time, but eventually relented

"The seller was stressed out of his mind

In the end, he got more than he was expecting, but it was strenuous getting to that point." Mr

Lackie says it's rare for a buyer to refuse to close altogether, but he did see cases after the "mad buying frenzy" of last year's first quarter

Most of the fallout came in the second and third quarters, he adds

In the case of Mr

Frank's clients, they had listed their detached home in late May with an asking price of $798,000 and a description of the home's sleek kitchen, bamboo floors and new furnace

They hoped the eye-catching price would spark a bidding war, court documents show

When they didn't get the price they were hoping for, they relisted with an asking price of $998,000

The court documents say it was around that time that the first buyer drove by the house and dialled the number of the listing agent from the for-sale sign

After taking a tour, the woman was willing to offer $990,000

The real estate agent represented both the buyer and the seller in a practice known as "double-ending." Such dual agency is allowed as long as rules are followed, but Mr

Frank says the practice can get messy when there's a later disagreement

"It's awkward when the two sides end up duelling." When the buyer informed the sellers through her lawyer that she didn't plan to complete the transaction, they launched a search for another buyer

They also beefed up the efforts of their local solicitor by calling in Mr

Frank

The couple was successful in finding another buyer, he says, but, unfortunately, it was someone who was willing only to pay $870,000 – or $120,000 less than the first buyer

The sellers made the sale conditional on the first deal not closing and indicated to the first buyer's lawyer that they were still willing to move ahead at the original price

Her lawyer suggested his client might be willing to go ahead at a price up to $20,000 higher than the replacement deal

"They were trying to settle it, but on terms that were unacceptable to the vendors," Mr

Frank says

The first buyer's lawyer was demanding her deposit back and stated if this was not done, he would "need to register a certificate of pending litigation on title to the subject property" in order to preserve his client's right to the $50,000

Mr

Frank countered that, since the client had repudiated the Agreement of Purchase and Sale and intended never to take title, the client clearly had no interest in the land

It would therefore be improper to register a certificate of pending litigation

The measure is only intended to be used by people who claim an entitlement to the land, he explains

The caution does not mean the replacement buyers would be unable to close, but that they would most likely be unwilling to go through with the transaction, unless they get clear title, Mr

Frank explains

"Nobody in his right mind would do so because they would be taking title with this shadow over it." Nevertheless, the caution was registered and the two sides could not reach a settlement before Mr

Frank appeared in a University Avenue courtroom and began arguing his motion before Justice Cavanagh of Ontario's Superior Court of Justice

During a morning break, the two sides reached a settlement when the defendant agreed to withdraw the caution

It was then up to the judge to decide costs

In his decision, Justice Cavanagh agreed with Mr

Frank's view that the caution never should have been registered in the first place

The judge ordered the defendant to pay the jilted sellers' legal costs of $10,000

The decision read, in part: "I agree with the plaintiffs that, given that [the defendant] takes the position that the agreement of purchase and sale was not a valid and binding contract, and that she repudiated this agreement, there was no proper basis for the caution to be registered

It is clear that this was done to gain leverage to assist [the defendant] to resolve the dispute about the deposit in her favour

The caution was requested for an improper purpose." The sellers were able to close the second deal and the house is now sold

As for the collapse of the original contract, the legal wrangles continue

Mr

Frank is trying to collect the $120,000 shortfall that his clients had to accept when they signed the second agreement

The buyer's lawyer is arguing that the real estate agent persuaded the client to make the offer and took advantage of a woman who did not have the capacity to sign the agreement

The real estate agent's actions amount to a "callous fleecing," according to documents in the case file

Mr

Frank's position is that the buyer "wrongfully repudiated the transaction." "The information presented to me suggests that this is not a case of anyone taking advantage of [the buyer] but rather of her agreeing to purchase in a hot market and then, when the market softened and she hit difficulties in selling her own property, her deciding that it was to her advantage not to close," Mr

Frank wrote in an e-mail to the buyer's lawyer

For now, the $50,000 is held in trust by the original buyer's lawyer

"I'm confident my clients, at the end of the day, will get that deposit," Mr

Frank says

If the case doesn't settle in the meantime, he expects to stand in front of a judge again many months down the road

"When property prices are going up, up, up, buyers are inclined to overlook a lot of things," Mr

Frank says, adding that some sellers, too, will look for excuses to back out of a deal when the market is rapidly rising

He says the big "if" in the lawsuit surrounds whether the buyer was entitled to walk away from the deal

"Our theory of the case is, [the homeowners] are trying to sell a property

By the time they were able to find a replacement buyer, the market sagged." The takeaway lesson, he says: "Buyers should understand that they cannot use cautions to arm-twist sellers into releasing deposits

A buyer might have a valid reason to repudiate a deal; if so, the buyer could get the deposit back by proving this, but not by registering a caution." This rare large townhouse in downtown Toronto near Trinity Bellwoods Park, sells in just two days

Follow Carolyn Ireland on Twitter @CarolynIreland Report an error Editorial code of conduct Comments are closed We have closed comments on this story for legal reasons or for abuse

For more information on our commenting policies and how our community-based moderation works, please read our Community Guidelines and our Terms and Conditions

.comments_disabled{max-width:100%;border:1px solid #DCD9D7;padding:10px 10px 10px 10px;border-radius:3px;overflow:hidden;background-color:#EEEDEA;margin:20px 0 20px 0;text-align:center}.comments_disabled__text{font-size:14px;font-family:"GMsanC-Regular",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal;line-height:1.4;letter-spacing:0.5px;color:#333}.comments_disabled__text a{text-decoration:none;color:#191919;border-bottom:1px solid #191919}.comments_disabled__text a:hover,.comments_disabled__text a:focus{color:#7f7f7f;border-bottom:1px solid #7f7f7f}.comments_disabled__text a:active{color:#595959;border-bottom:1px solid #595959} Due to technical reasons, we have temporarily removed commenting from our articles

We hope to have this fixed soon

Thank you for your patience

If you are looking to give feedback on our new site, please send it along to feedback@globeandmail.com

If you want to write a letter to the editor, please forward to letters@globeandmail.com

Related Condo market's strength has owners considering a shift to detached homes Subscriber content Home sellers stress in December to avoid the stress test in January Subscriber content Whipsaw effect coming for Toronto housing market in January Subscriber content var query_feature_url="https://www.theglobeandmail.com/query-collection/?outputType\x3djson\x26_compact\x3dtrue\x26q\x3dlocation-";var acceptable_province_map={"British Columbia":{"province":"British","param":"bc"},"Alberta":{"province":"Alberta","param":"alberta"},"Ontario":{"province":"Ontario","param":"ontario"}};var provinceMap={"British Columbia":0,"Alberta":0,"Ontario":0}; function retrieveUserCityAndBuildWidget(guid){if(!guid)return;var d=new Date;var n=(d.getMonth()<9?"0":"")+(d.getMonth()+1);var y="2018";var monthYear=n+y;var numMonths=2;var url="https://tgamuserprofile.theglobeandmail.ca/main/regpreuserprofile/?hashId\x3d"+guid+"\x26monthYear\x3d"+monthYear+"\x26numberOfMonths\x3d"+numMonths;var userProfileArray=undefined;var request=new XMLHttpRequest;request.addEventListener("load",function(){try{userProfileArray=JSON.parse(request.responseText);userProfileArray.forEach(function(monthElement){for(var i= 1;i<6;i++)["Computer","Mobile","Tablet"].forEach(function(deviceType){if(monthElement.weeklyFeatures[i]===undefined||monthElement.weeklyFeatures[i].deviceFeatures[deviceType]===undefined)return;getCountMap(monthElement.weeklyFeatures[i].deviceFeatures[deviceType].provinceCount,acceptable_province_map,provinceMap)})});var largestKey="British Columbia";for(var property in acceptable_province_map)if(acceptable_province_map.hasOwnProperty(property))if(largestKey!==property&&provinceMap[largestKey]=0});if(guidArray.length<1)return false;var guid=guidArray[0].split("\x3d")[1].split("%")[0];if(guid.length<32)return false;return guid}(function(){retrieveUserCityAndBuildWidget(validateIfHashIdPresent())})(); .tippy-tooltip.tgam-theme{background-color:#191919;font-family:"GMsanC-Regular",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:.875rem;line-height:1rem;letter-spacing:0.03125rem;border-radius:0.125rem}.tippy-popper[x-placement^=bottom] .tippy-tooltip.tgam-theme .tippy-arrow{border-bottom:7px solid #191919}.tippy-popper[x-placement^=top] .tippy-tooltip.tgam-theme .tippy-arrow{border-top:7px solid #191919}.tippy-popper[x-placement^=right] .tippy-tooltip.tgam-theme .tippy-arrow{border-right:7px solid #191919}.tippy-popper[x-placement^=left] .tippy-tooltip.tgam-theme .tippy-arrow{border-left:7px solid #191919}.tippyWidth{width:auto;max-width:10rem;text-align:left}.location-article-container{background-color:#5b6a57;cursor:pointer;display:flex;flex:auto;-webkit-box-flex:auto;-ms-flex:auto;padding:0.625rem;margin:0.625rem}.location-article-container:hover{text-decoration:underline !important}.text-box{order:1}.picture-box{order:2}.picture-size{object-fit:cover}.location-link{color:#fff;text-decoration:none;width:100%}.location-article-headline{font-family:"Pratt-Bold",Georgia,Palatino,"Book Antiqua","Times New Roman",serif;font-size:1.0625rem;letter-spacing:0;line-height:1.275rem;color:#FFF;text-decoration:none;display:block}.location-article-time{font-family:"GMsanC-Regular",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.75rem;line-height:0.75rem;letter-spacing:0.0625rem;text-transform:uppercase;color:#fff;display:block;margin-top:0.625rem}.location-article-label{font-family:"GMsanC-Bold",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.75rem;line-height:0.75rem;letter-spacing:0.0625rem;text-transform:uppercase;width:fit-content;background:#fff;color:#5b6a57;margin:0 0 0.625rem 0;padding:.25rem .4375rem;display:block}.c-tooltip__text{font-family:"GMsanC-Regular",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif !important;font-size:0.875rem !important;line-height:1rem;letter-spacing:0.03125rem;width:auto !important;right:150% !important;left:auto !important;background-color:#191919 !important}.c-tooltip__text::after{right:auto !important;top:20% !important;left:100% !important;border-color:transparent transparent transparent #191919 !important}.tooltip-question{display:block;float:right}.c-tooltip-repeat{position:relative;display:inline-block;width:1.5rem}.reduce-margin{margin:0.625rem 0} ;(function() { function dwExecute() { _dw = window._dw || []; _dw.push(['global', 'before', function(api) { api.segment('life-sect', function(){ const isSubscriber = getSegment('identity.role.id', 2); const isIE10 = window.navigator.userAgent.indexOf("MSIE ") > -1 || window.navigator.userAgent.match(/Trident.*rv\:11\./) !== null; const darwinState = getDarwinState() || {}; const hasSeenIt = darwinState.hasOwnProperty("cem911") && darwinState.cem911.hasSeenUnit > 2; const hasClosedIt = darwinState.hasOwnProperty("cem911") && darwinState.cem911.hasClosed; const isRightSection = !getSegment('page.hierarchy','business') && !getSegment('page.hierarchy','investing') && !getSegment('page.hierarchy','watchlist'); var isRightAuthor = false; if(window.location.href.indexOf('/article')>-1){ isRightAuthor = !getSegment('article.byline','LUCY WAVERMAN'); } // const duration = schedule("Jul 18 2018 09:00:00 GMT-0400 (EDT)", "Jul 19 2018 03:00:00 GMT-0400 (EDT)"); // const hasElement = document.body.contains(document.getElementById('feature-content')); var count = count || 1; if(darwinState.hasOwnProperty("cem911") && count ==1 && darwinState.cem911.variant){ count +=1; setdarwinVariant('products-cem911', darwinState.cem911.variant); } if (isSubscriber && !isIE10 && isRightSection && isRightAuthor && !hasSeenIt && !hasClosedIt) { return true; } return false; }); }]); _dw.push(['global', 'ready', function(api) { var variant = api.get("products-cem911"); // set darwin state on view if (variant.is('control')) { console.info('products:cem-911:control'); setUnitState("cem911","control"); } if (variant.is('experience')) { console.info('products:cem-911:experience'); setTimeout(displayUnit, 1500); } function displayUnit(){ if(document.body.contains(document.getElementById('feature-content'))){ document.getElementById("feature-content").className = ''; setUnitState("cem911","experience"); } } }]); } window.tgam.datalayer.ready.push(dwExecute); })(); if(getCookie("gtm_u_info")!==null&&getCookie("gtm_u_info").split("|")[0]!=="")getapi("https://tgamuserprofile.theglobeandmail.ca/upcj/readinghistory?days\x3d365\x26hashId\x3d"+getCookie("gtm_u_info").split("|")[0],"Lucy Waverman"); function displayFeatureArticle(){var windowurl=window.location.href;var paraCount=5;if(document.getElementsByClassName("c-article-body__text").length>paraCount){var innerHTML='\x3cdiv class\x3d"o-package o-package--transparent o-package--single-story"\x3e \x3cdiv class\x3d"u-wrapper pb-feature pb-layout-item pb-f-global-single-story"\x3e \x3cdiv class\x3d"o-card o-card--single-md"\x3e \x3cdiv class\x3d"o-card__content"\x3e \x3cbutton id\x3d"cta-close" class\x3d"c-control__button" type\x3d"button" aria-expanded\x3d"false" onclick\x3d"hideUnit(\'cem911\',\'feature-content\')"\x3e \x3csvg id\x3d"close-menu" class\x3d"c-button__icon pencilchev" role\x3d"img" pointer-events\x3d"none" focusable\x3d"false" aria-hidden\x3d"true"\x3e \x3cuse xlink:href\x3d"'+window.tgam.env.svgSpritePath+ '#close-x"\x3e\x3c/use\x3e \x3c/svg\x3e\x3c/button\x3e \x3cdiv class\x3d"o-card__col"\x3e \x3cspan class\x3d"o-card__label o-card__label--inverted"\x3e \x3cspan class\x3d"o-card__label-text"\x3eSubscriber Exclusive\x3c/span\x3e \x3c/span\x3e \x3cspan class\x3d"o-card__hed-dek"\x3e \x3cspan class\x3d"o-card__hed o-card__hed--single-md"\x3e \x3cspan class\x3d"o-card__hed-text"\x3eCooking 101: Seven basic techniques everyone can master\x3c/span\x3e \x3cdiv class\x3d"o-card__when"\x3eFrom stir fry to grilling to brining, here\u2019s how to up your game in the kitchen\x3c/div\x3e \x3cbutton class\x3d"c-button c-button--dark-primary c-button--hidden-xs-down" type\x3d"button" onclick\x3d"readnow()"\x3e \x3csvg id\x3d"readnow-ico"\x3e\x3cuse xlink:href\x3d"https://www.theglobeandmail.com/files/cem/icons/read-ico.svg#read-ico"\x3e\x3c/use\x3e \x3c/svg\x3e\x3cspan class\x3d"c-button__text"\x3e Read Now \x3c/span\x3e \x3c/button\x3e \x3c/span\x3e \x3c/span\x3e \x3c/div\x3e \x3cdiv class\x3d"o-card__col"\x3e \x3cdiv class\x3d"c-image-container c-image-container--lazy"\x3e \x3cdiv class\x3d"c-image-container--lazy__wrapper"\x3e \x3cimg class\x3d"c-image js-lazyimage--autosizes js-lazyimage--loaded" src\x3d"https://www.theglobeandmail.com/files/cem/other/cooking-img.png"\x3e \x3c/div\x3e \x3c/div\x3e \x3c/div\x3e \x3c/div\x3e \x3c/div\x3e \x3c/div\x3e \x3c/div\x3e'; var newNode=document.createElement("div");newNode.className="u-hidden";newNode.setAttribute("id","feature-content");var refNode=document.getElementsByClassName("c-article-body__text")[paraCount-1];refNode.parentNode.insertBefore(newNode,refNode);document.getElementById("feature-content").innerHTML=innerHTML}} function getAuthor(object,author){var check=true;for(i=0;i-1)isArticle=!getSegment("article.paywallStatus","red")&&!(getSegment("article.paywallStatus","yellow")&&(getCookie("window.tgampianometer")=="6"||getCookie("window.tgampianometer")=="3"||getCookie("window.tgampianometer")==null));var isPremiumSub=getSegment("identity.role.id",2);var isIE10=window.navigator.userAgent.indexOf("MSIE ")> 0||!!navigator.userAgent.match(/Trident.*rv\:11\./);var isMobile=screen.width<=768;if(!isPremiumSub&&isArticle&&!isIE10&&isMobile)return true;return false})}]);_dw.push(["global","ready",function(api){var variant=api.get("pencil-cem802");if(variant.is("control"))console.log("cem802: Client is in variation control");if(variant.is("experience")){console.log("cem802: Client is in variation experience");hidearcpencil();setTimeout(custompencil,1500)}}])}window.tgam.datalayer.ready.push(dwExecute)})(); function custompencil(){if(typeof document.getElementsByClassName("o-sub-pencil__box")[0]!=="undefined"){var newNode=document.createElement("div");newNode.setAttribute("id","custome-mb");newNode.className="u-hidden";document.getElementsByClassName("o-sub-pencil__box")[0].prepend(newNode);document.getElementById("custome-mb").innerHTML='\x3cdiv class\x3d"o-sub-pencil__offer"\x3e \x3cp class\x3d"o-sub-pencil__offer__cost-xs"\x3e\x3cspan\x3eGet full access to globeandmail.com\x3cbr\x3eJUST 99\u00a2 PER WEEK \x3cspan\x3efor the first four weeks\x3c/span\x3e\x3c/span\x3e\x3c/p\x3e \x3c/div\x3e'; document.getElementById("subscription-pencil-area").className="pencil-exp";document.getElementById("custome-mb").className="";document.getElementsByClassName("o-sub-pencil__control--sm")[0].className+=" experience-click";document.getElementById("hidepencil").remove();document.getElementsByClassName("experience-click")[0].onclick=function(){analyticsLayer.push({"event":"clickEvent","clickEvent":{"testId":"cem802","feature":"subscribebtn","action":"click-subscribe","type":"test","label":"sub-pencil-ad: start today", "variantName":"experience","segmentName":"custom-sect"}});var url="https://subscribe.theglobeandmail.com/#/digital?cmpid\x3dgu_pencil";window.open(url,"_self")}}else custompencil()}; .pencil-exp #custom-mb{display:none}@media (min-width:425px) and (max-width:47.99rem){.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__offer__cost-xs{letter-spacing:1px !important;font-size:16px !important;line-height:18px !important}.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__offer__cost-xs span span{font-size:13px !important}}@media (max-width:47.99rem){.pencil-exp,.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__box,.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__control.o-sub-pencil__control--sm,.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__tier{height:3rem}.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__control.o-sub-pencil__control--sm{width:3rem}.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__tier--sm,.pencil-exp.o-sub-pencil--closed .o-sub-pencil__control--sm{display:none !important}.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil--open .o-sub-pencil__control--sm{-webkit-transform:rotate(90deg);transform:rotate(90deg)}.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__offer{padding:0;position:absolute;top:0;bottom:0;right:0;left:0;margin:0 30px 0 3%;display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-flex-direction:column;-ms-flex-direction:column;flex-direction:column;-webkit-box-pack:center;-webkit-justify-content:center;-ms-flex-pack:center;justify-content:center;-ms-text-size-adjust:100%;-moz-text-size-adjust:100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:100%;text-size-adjust:100%}.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__control--sm{height:3rem;background:#0000007a;position:relative;display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-align-items:center;-webkit-box-align:center;-ms-flex-align:center;align-items:center;-webkit-box-pack:end;-webkit-justify-content:flex-end;-ms-flex-pack:end;justify-content:flex-end}.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__offer__cost-xs{text-transform:none;letter-spacing:0.5px;font-size:15px;line-height:17px;opacity:1;margin:0;vertical-align:baseline;text-size-adjust:100%;display:block}.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__offer__cost-xs span{display:inline}.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil__offer__cost-xs span span{font-size:12px}.pencil-exp .o-sub-pencil--closed{display:none}} (function(){function dwExecute(){_dw=window._dw||[];_dw.push(["global","before",function(api){api.segment("primer",function(){return true})}]);_dw.push(["global","ready",function(api){var variant=api.get("UXTest-DES838");if(variant.is("control")){console.log("des838 control");logExplainerLoad("control")}if(variant.is("variant_one")){console.log("des838 variant one");var bigMarkupString='\x3cdiv id\x3d"explainerWidget" class\x3d"arrow-explainer explainer-dimension"\x3e'+'\x3cdiv class\x3d"arrow-div-dimensions"\x3e'+ '\x3cdiv class\x3d"arrow-button-container"\x3e'+'\x3cbutton id\x3d"explainerToggleButton" class\x3d"c-control__button arrow-button" type\x3d"button"\x3e'+'\x3csvg id\x3d"svg_down" class\x3d"c-control__icon arrow-explainer-icon" role\x3d"img" aria-hidden\x3d"true"\x3e'+'\x3cuse xlink:href\x3d"/pb/resources/assets/img/tgam-patterns/sprite.svg?token\x3d298228#nav-arrow-down"\x3e\x3c/use\x3e'+"\x3c/svg\x3e"+'\x3csvg id\x3d"svg_up" class\x3d"c-control__icon arrow-explainer-icon u-hidden" role\x3d"img" aria-hidden\x3d"true"\x3e'+ '\x3cuse xlink:href\x3d"/pb/resources/assets/img/tgam-patterns/sprite.svg?token\x3d298228#nav-arrow-up"\x3e\x3c/use\x3e'+"\x3c/svg\x3e"+"\x3c/button\x3e"+"\x3c/div\x3e"+"\x3c/div\x3e"+'\x3cdiv class\x3d"explainer-title"\x3e\x3c/div\x3e'+'\x3cdiv id\x3d"standardExplainerDiv" class\x3d"explainer-body explainer-body-margin u-hidden"\x3e\x3c/div\x3e'+'\x3cdiv id\x3d"moreContentDiv" class\x3d"explainer-body"\x3e\x3c/div\x3e'+'\x3cdiv class\x3d"explainer-meta arrow-explainer-meta"\x3e'+'\x3cspan class\x3d"arrow-meta-title"\x3eglobe primer\x3c/span\x3e'+ '\x3cspan id\x3d"readTimeSpan" class\x3d"arrow-meta-time"\x3eabcTimeabc\x3c/span\x3e'+"\x3c/div\x3e"+'\x3c/div\x3e\x3cdiv class\x3d"third-p-spacer"\x3e\x3c/div\x3e';var expandMarkupString='\x3cdiv class\x3d"arrow-explainer-action-div u-hidden"\x3e'+'\x3cbutton id\x3d"explainerActionButton" class\x3d"explainer-meta arrow-meta-title arrow-explainer-meta-button"\x3emore\x3c/button\x3e'+"\x3c/div\x3e";setupExplainer(tgam.datalayer.article.contentId,bigMarkupString,expandMarkupString,function(actionButton){actionButton.innerText= "close";actionButton.classList.add("arrow-explainer-close")},function(){document.getElementById("explainerActionButton").classList.remove("arrow-explainer-close");document.getElementById("explainerActionButton").innerText="more"},"variant_one")}if(variant.is("variant_two")){console.log("des838 variant two");var bigMarkupString='\x3cdiv id\x3d"explainerWidget" class\x3d"plus-explainer explainer-dimension"\x3e'+'\x3cdiv class\x3d"arrow-div-dimensions"\x3e'+'\x3cdiv class\x3d"arrow-button-container"\x3e'+ '\x3cbutton id\x3d"explainerToggleButton" class\x3d"c-control__button plus-button" type\x3d"button"\x3e'+'\x3cimg id\x3d"svg_down" class\x3d"plus-explainer-icon" aria-hidden\x3d"true" src\x3d"data:image/svg+xml;utf8;base64,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"\x3e'+ '\x3csvg id\x3d"svg_up" class\x3d"close-explainer-icon u-hidden" role\x3d"img" aria-hidden\x3d"true"\x3e'+'\x3cuse xlink:href\x3d"/pb/resources/assets/img/tgam-patterns/sprite.svg?token\x3d2_0_167#close-x"\x3e\x3c/use\x3e'+"\x3c/svg\x3e"+"\x3c/button\x3e"+"\x3c/div\x3e"+"\x3c/div\x3e"+'\x3cdiv class\x3d"explainer-meta plus-explainer-meta"\x3e'+'\x3cspan class\x3d"plus-meta-title"\x3eGLOBE PRIMER: \x3c/span\x3e'+'\x3cspan id\x3d"readTimeSpan" class\x3d"plus-meta-title"\x3eabcTimeabc\x3c/span\x3e'+ '\x3cspan id\x3d"expandContentDiv" class\x3d"plus-meta-expand"\x3eEXPAND\x3c/span\x3e'+"\x3c/div\x3e"+'\x3cdiv class\x3d"explainer-title plus-explainer-title"\x3e\x3c/div\x3e'+'\x3cdiv id\x3d"standardExplainerDiv" class\x3d"explainer-body explainer-body-margin u-hidden"\x3e\x3c/div\x3e'+'\x3cdiv id\x3d"moreContentDiv" class\x3d"explainer-body"\x3e\x3c/div\x3e'+'\x3c/div\x3e\x3cdiv class\x3d"third-p-spacer"\x3e\x3c/div\x3e';var expandMarkupString='\x3cdiv id\x3d"plusActionButton" class\x3d"arrow-explainer-action-div plus-explainer-action-div u-hidden"\x3e'+ '\x3cdiv id\x3d"explainerActionButton" class\x3d"explainer-meta plus-explainer-meta"\x3e';var expandMarkupInternal='\x3cspan class\x3d"plus-meta-bottom-icon plus-icon-meta"\x3e'+'\x3cimg class\x3d"plus-explainer-bottom-icon" src\x3d"data:image/svg+xml;utf8;base64,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"\x3e'+ "\x3c/span\x3e"+'\x3cspan class\x3d"plus-meta-bottom-expand"\x3eshow more \x3c/span\x3e';expandMarkupString+=expandMarkupInternal+"\x3c/div\x3e"+"\x3c/div\x3e";setupExplainer(tgam.datalayer.article.contentId,bigMarkupString,expandMarkupString,function(actionButton){actionButton.innerHTML='\x3cspan class\x3d"plus-meta-bottom-icon plus-icon-meta"\x3e'+'\x3csvg id\x3d"svg_up" class\x3d"close-explainer-icon" role\x3d"img" aria-hidden\x3d"true"\x3e'+'\x3cuse xlink:href\x3d"/pb/resources/assets/img/tgam-patterns/sprite.svg?token\x3d2_0_167#close-x"\x3e\x3c/use\x3e'+ "\x3c/svg\x3e"+'\x3cspan class\x3d"close-meta-bottom"\x3eCLOSE \x3c/span\x3e'},function(){if(!document.getElementById("explainerActionButton"))return;document.getElementById("explainerActionButton").innerHTML=expandMarkupInternal},"variant_two")}}])}window.tgam.datalayer.ready.push(dwExecute)})(); var explainerMap={38246963:{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and what is bitcoin, and how does it work?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrency, bitcoin, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"cryptocurrency"},"VSURXLKQYVFQPHSJ3VNBRAQHA4":{"time":"45","title":"What is cap-and-trade?","text":"A \x3cstrong\x3ecap-and-trade\x3c/strong\x3e system sets a limit on the amount of carbon that companies are permitted to burn when operating in the territory where the system is in place

It also offers the option for companies to buy the right to burn more than their quota, by purchasing permits (also known as carbon credits) from companies that burn less

By doing that, they exchange their right to emit greenhouse gases; that\u2019s the \u201ctrade\u201d part

The government also makes money on those permits, since it runs the auctions for them.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nCap-and-trade is not the same thing as a \x3cstrong\x3ecarbon tax\x3c/strong\x3e, which makes companies and consumers pay for every tonne of carbon burned \u2013 just like drivers pay by the litre to burn gas in their cars, but at a larger scale

Both a carbon tax and cap-and-trade have the same goal: to give companies a financial incentive to reduce their emissions

They just go about it differently.", "refVal":"CapAndTrade","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho does cap-and-trade in Canada?\x3c/strong\x3e Quebec has had a system in place since 2013, and later joined up with California so that credits could be traded between those territories

Ontario implemented its system last year, and committed to joining Quebec and California in future auctions

Ontario Premier Doug Ford has vowed to scrap this plan."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho has a carbon tax?\x3c/strong\x3e\u202fBritish Columbia, since 2008; and Alberta, since 2017."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eCould there be more soon?\x3c/strong\x3e\u202f\u200bIn 2018, the federal government announced legislation that would require every province to implement a carbon-pricing system by 2019

The move follows a commitment to greenhouse gas reduction targets that the Trudeau government signed at the Paris climate conference in 2015; since then it has faced resistance\u202fto a national carbon-pricing framework from some provinces, particularly Saskatchewan and more recently Ontario following the election of Doug Ford as premier."}]}, "JPUOTC3Q55BGZNNP2CVN6KKEDQ":{"refVal":"softwood","title":"What is softwood and why has it been in the news so many times over the years?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the dispute over softwood lumber?","time":"55","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","text":"Softwood lumber (as opposed to hardwood) includes woods like cedar and pine that are widely used in construction, furniture building, and woodwork

The U.S

and Canada have repeatedly butted heads over softwood because of NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement.) Free trade removes most tariffs (i.e

taxes on imported goods) between the countries, but the U.S

has tried to impose tariffs on Canadian softwood lumber before

Why? Because in Canada, timber is grown mostly on public land and the U.S

argues that the provinces charge Canadian producers lower rates to cut it down than American companies pay when harvesting mostly on private property

When costs to make a product are low, a company can keep prices low too \u2013 and the U.S

contends this has allowed Canadian softwood companies to keep their prices artificially low, and compete unfairly with American producers

Because of\u202fa dispute resolution system imposed by\u202fNAFTA, the U.S

has been forced to scale back\u202fretaliatory tariffs\u202f that it slapped\u202fon Canadian softwood\u202fin the past.\u202fMore recently, the U.S

imposed tariffs again, which began to impact Canadian softwood producers in 2017."}, "AA2KN4IPIVF2VGT6PDGB7V3MQQ":{"time":"50","title":"What is a tariff?","text":"A \x3cstrong\x3etariff\x3c/strong\x3e is a fee, similar to a tax, that a government charges to a foreign company for bringing its goods into the country

Tariffs are usually placed on certain categories of products, such as dairy or aluminium

That\u2019s because tariffs are partly motivated by the government\u2019s desire to protect a domestic industry by making it more expensive for foreign companies to compete on their turf (tariffs might also lead those foreign companies to raise prices to compensate for that extra cost, making their products less attractive to consumers than the homemade version)

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nTariffs are usually expressed as a \x3cstrong\x3epercentage\x3c/strong\x3e of a product\u2019s value

For example, if Country A imposes a 10% tariff on steel products, and a steel company headquartered in Country B wants to bring in $500,000 worth of steel over the border to sell there, the company would have to pay $50,000 to Country A

So tariffs are also a source of revenue for governments

Tariffs are one of the restrictions on cross-border trade that are frequently lifted as part of free trade deals.", "refVal":"tariff","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(1)","more":[{"text":'\x3cstrong\x3eAre tariffs and duties the same thing?\x3c/strong\x3e Effectively, yes -- but there is a distinction

Specifically, "tariff" is an umbrella term for these import taxes described above; the "duty" refers to the amount charged (25 per cent, for example.) But while the distinction matters in legal terms, you\'ll frequently see these words used interchangeably

'}]}, "6IQBV7RNSJHAXNNDU4RELWVMHI":{"time":"40","title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","text":"Free trade, in general, allows for an easier flow of goods and labour across international borders

When NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement) went into effect in 1994 \u2013 expanding a 1988 Canada-U.S

agreement and bringing in Mexico \u2013 it created the biggest free-trade area in the world

Trade with the U.S

is hugely important to Canada\u2019s economy; thanks to NAFTA, Canadian exports to the American market soared

The agreement gradually eliminated most tariffs (i.e

taxes on imported goods) between the three countries \u2013 though not all, and that has caused some disputes

The deal has become more contentious since the election of U.S

President Donald Trump, who declared an \u201cAmerica-first\u201d trade policy and has threatened to pull out of NAFTA

The deal is currently being renegotiated.", "refVal":"nafta","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","more":[{"text":"Free trade eliminates restrictions to products moving across borders \u2013 restrictions like tariffs (a fee a country charges at the border on products coming in from other countries \u2013 making it more expensive for foreign companies to trade there than homegrown ones); quotas (limits on the amount of a certain kind of product that a country allows across its border) and subsidies (any kind of support that helps a certain sector to compete.)"}, {"text":"Here are a few examples of issues on the table in the negotiations."},{"text":"1) Trump blames NAFTA for moving auto manufacturing \x3cstrong\x3ejobs\x3c/strong\x3e to Mexico \u2013 and he wants new rules that would push automakers to bring that work back to America."},{"text":"2) American farmers want to sell more of their products here, but one area of trade untouched by NAFTA is Canada\u2019s \x3cstrong\x3e\u201csupply management\u201d\x3c/strong\x3e system for milk, eggs and poultry that imposes tariffs on imports (it also sets prices and imposes quotas on farmers to restrict how much product goes to market.)"}, {"text":"3) NAFTA has an independent \x3cstrong\x3edispute resolution\x3c/strong\x3e process, which settles some trade fights through special panels rather than any of the countries\u2019 court systems

(You\u2019ll frequently hear this System referred to as Chapter 19.) Canada has used this system in disputes with the U.S

over softwood lumber

(Softwood, as opposed to hardwood, includes woods like cedar and pine that are widely used in construction, furniture building, and woodwork.) The U.S

and Canada have repeatedly butted heads over softwood: in Canada, timber is grown mostly on public land and the U.S

argues that the provinces charge Canadian producers lower rates to cut it down than American companies pay when harvesting mostly on private property

When costs to make a product are low, a company can keep prices low too \u2013 and the U.S

contends this has allowed Canadian softwood companies to keep their prices artificially low, and compete unfairly with American producers

But because of NAFTA\u2019s dispute resolution system, the U.S

has been forced to scale back retaliatory tariffs that it slapped on Canadian softwood in the past

More recently, the U.S

imposed tariffs again, which began to impact Canadian softwood producers in 2017

The U.S

wants this dispute resolution system gone."}]}, "7SIGPPADGBG5HNMJ7KO4G2GDVU":{"refVal":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?","time":"60","text":"The Trans Mountain oil pipeline already exists; the project that has been making headlines is a plan to expand it

Currently, the pipeline carries about 300,000 barrels of Alberta oil to the B.C

coast per day

The pipeline\u2019s owner, Texas-based oil and gas transport company Kinder Morgan, has been trying since 2012 to build hundreds of kilometres of new pipe alongside the existing route, nearly tripling its capacity at an estimated cost of $7.4-billion

More oil down the pipeline will mean a sevenfold increase in oil tankers in the Vancouver port, and critics have raised concerns about the risk of a disastrous spill in those waters

The project has set off a highly politicized spat between B.C

and Alberta

Now, in order to ensure the project goes ahead, the Trudeau government has agreed to buy the pipeline from Kinder Morgan for $4.5-billion (not including further construction and labour costs)

The government plans to sell off the assets to a private owner at a later date

It is not clear how the government will handle opposition to the project, how much it will cost taxpayers overall, and when it will go ahead.", "more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho\u2019s against it?\x3c/strong\x3e B.C.\u2019s NDP government under Premier John Horgan promised to kill the project

Some B.C

residents are concerned about the risk of a major oil spill in coastal waters

Many First Nations along the pipeline route are opposed, but not all."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho\u2019s for it?\x3c/strong\x3e Some Indigenous nations have signed agreements supporting it

The federal Liberal government approved the expansion project in 2016

Alberta Premier Rachel Notley needs the revenues from the pipeline to support her NDP government\u2019s plan to balance the province\u2019s budget

Alberta\u2019s oil and gas sector had high hopes for Trans Mountain after other major pipeline projects \u2014 TransCanada\u2019s Keystone XL (Alberta to Nebraska), Enbridge\u2019s Northern Gateway (Alberta to B.C.) and TransCanada\u2019s Energy East (Alberta to Quebec and New Brunswick) -- hit roadblocks in Canada

U.S

oil-industry leaders and major Canadian banks also support it."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe politics:\x3c/strong\x3e Both Ms

Notley in Alberta and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau face elections in 2019

The project\u2019s failure could weaken support for both of them in Alberta: the province\u2019s United Conservative Party, led by Jason Kenney, has put pressure on them to see it through

Mr

Trudeau\u2019s government has said that the environment and Indigenous people are priorities, but has also committed to opening Canada\u2019s natural resources to global markets."}]}, "HZNWU4K2TRB3LJDMC2HWSIWQAU":{"refVal":"supply","title":"What is supply management? ","time":"40","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(20)","text":"Canada has a \u201csupply management\u201d system for milk, eggs and poultry that imposes tariffs (i.e

taxes on imported goods) on these types of products coming from other countries

It also sets prices and imposes quotas on Canadian farmers to restrict how much product goes to market

In some cases, this means when there is too much supply in the market, farmers have to throw out their products

Some economic studies have shown that the system increases the prices Canadian consumers pay for their eggs, cheese, milk and butter at the grocery store

This system is a problem for Canada\u2019s largest trading partner too, because American farmers want to sell more of their products here

For that reason, supply management has become a sticking point in the negotiations over NAFTA (the North American free-trade agreement.)"}, "RF7YFBYWTNCWXCWF423M2OV2FU":{"refVal":"G7","title":"What is the G7?","time":"35","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"The G7 is an informal group of seven wealthy countries that meet each year to discuss issues including international trade, economic considerations such as employment and globalization, climate policy, security concerns, and their approach to the developing world, among other matters

Its members are the U.S., Canada, France, Germany, Italy and Japan and the United Kingdom

The group has existed since 1975 when it was founded by six countries; Canada joined the next year

Its meetings are important opportunities for leaders of major world powers to gather, form relationships, and discuss policy objectives

However the group has been criticized for not always following through on its policy goals, because its meetings are informal and decisions are not enforced on member countries.", "more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eIs it different from the G8?\x3c/strong\x3e The G7 used to be the G8 but following Russia\u2019s military actions in Ukraine in 2014, the other countries decided no longer to include Russia as an expression of their disapproval of the annexation of Crimea."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhat is the G20?\x3c/strong\x3e The G7 has been criticized for excluding emerging powers such as China, Mexico, Brazil and India

The G20 is a broader group that includes these countries as well as the EU

(Russia remains in the G20 as well.) Its finance ministers and central bank governors meet to discuss economic matters; for example, the countries all coordinated efforts to address the global financial crisis in 2008."}]}, "AZSKYYHD45FDDDB675QFQQ4NLU":{"refVal":"sources","title":"How does the Globe use anonymous sources?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(39)","time":"40","text":"When you see a phrase like \u201caccording to sources with knowledge of the matter,\u201d or \u201csources said,\u201d the name of that source of information has been excluded

This is not done lightly

Sometimes key details in a story cannot be told without protecting a source who risks retribution for speaking to the press

The reporter always knows who the source is, and at the Globe, an editor must approve the decision to grant anonymity

Reporters are encouraged to describe the person with as much detail as possible so you understand their expertise and why their name is not used

Direct quotes are not used if they simply express opinions \u2013 we do not grant anonymity to allow a source to criticize or attack others without having to be accountable for what they say."}, "RCEH5L4SJRFUPDNFIFH6ULTLIA":{"time":"65","title":"Need a quick catch-up on the Russia investigation? ","text":"This investigation is looking into alleged interference by Russia in the 2016 U.S

presidential election, and whether anyone on Donald Trump\u2019s campaign was involved, during or after the race

The U.S Justice Department and the FBI launched the investigation, which is led by special counsel Robert Mueller

It\u2019s the largest probe of ties between Russia and the Trump campaign (others, including the Senate intelligence committee, Senate judiciary committee, House intelligence committee and House oversight committee are also investigating)

So far, it has resulted in Mueller bringing charges against Russian hackers and spies for interfering in the election, and against some Trump campaign associates for lying to the FBI and for laundering money

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nThe investigation is primarily focused on two crimes: \x3cstrong\x3e1) Collusion.\x3c/strong\x3e Did the Russian government hack into the servers of the Democratic National Committee (the arm of the Democratic Party that supports candidates seeking election) \u2013 leaking confidential e-mails to whistleblower website Wikileaks \u2013 in order to help the Trump campaign? And did anyone on the Trump campaign work with Russians who interfered in the election? \x3cstrong\x3e 2) Obstruction of justice.\x3c/strong\x3e Did Mr

Trump attempt to interfere with the investigation into that first question? All of the investigations, including Mueller\u2019s, will end with reports on what they found (though Mueller\u2019s report may not necessarily be made public.) It is not clear how long this will take

", "refVal":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhat are the collusion allegations?\x3c/strong\x3e The FBI, other intelligence agencies and the Justice Department allege that hackers who broke into the Democratic National Committee\u2019s servers in July of 2016 were working on behalf of the Russian government \u2013 and that they leaked embarrassing e-mails to Wikileaks in order to sway the election in favour of Donald Trump

(Among other things, the e-mails showed that the DNC \u2013 which is supposed to be neutral \u2013 favoured Hillary Clinton for the party\u2019s presidential candidate over her competitor for the nomination, Bernie Sanders.) There are indications, which the investigators are looking into, that people in Mr

Trump\u2019s circle knew about the hack

At the time, Mr

Trump publicly stated that Russia should hack into Ms

Clinton\u2019s e-mails and release them."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhat are the obstruction allegations?\x3c/strong\x3e The investigation into the DNC e-mail hack started immediately after it happened, in July of 2016, when the election campaign was still ongoing

At first, FBI James Comey was leading the investigation, but, a few months after taking office, Mr

Trump fired him, in May, 2017

The White House said Mr

Comey\u2019s dismissal had to do with his performance at the FBI; Mr

Comey has said it was a result of the Russia investigation

Mr

Trump later said in a TV interview that when he decided to fire Mr

Comey, \u201cI said to myself, I said, \u2018You know, this Russia thing with Trump and Russia is a made-up story.\u2019\u201d Mr

Comey told a Senate committee hearing that Mr

Trump attempted to meddle in the investigation more than once, including asking Mr

Comey to \u201clift the cloud\u201d that the probe had caused over his administration

Mr

Comey\u2019s firing was widely decried, and led to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein (acting in the place of attorney general Jeff Sessions, who has recused himself from the investigation) to appoint special counsel Robert Mueller to take over the probe."}]}, "LXPMRQOYHVCHBM6HAQGBD2KTBI":{"refVal":"ai","title":"What is AI? Is it different from machine learning?","time":"30","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","text":"The basic difference between these two terms is the difference between the concept of intelligence, and the process of learning.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\x3cstrong\x3eArtificial intelligence (AI)\x3c/strong\x3e is a term dating back to the \u201950s, when it was defined as \u201cthe science and engineering of making intelligent machines.\u201d When we talk about AI, we\u2019re usually talking broadly about the concept of machines that can develop abilities usually associated with human intelligence \u2013 like learning a language, spontaneously navigating a roadway when driving a car, or spotting the difference between an image of a cat and of a dog.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \x3cstrong\x3eMachine learning\x3c/strong\x3e refers to various methods for developing AI

Many computers function by being explicitly programmed to follow a specific series of instructions; machine learning, in contrast, attempts to train a computer to complete tasks or solve problems on its own

People have been working on this for decades

Why are you hearing so much about it now? Because only in recent years have our computers been fast enough, and able to process large enough sets of information, to make more complex developments in machine learning possible."}, "5TDPGHUIPNHSTHXK5BNRKNPAFY":{"refVal":"asylum","title":"What is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","time":"70","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","text":"People have crossed the land border into Canada in between official border crossings before, but the influx of asylum seekers in 2017 and 2018 is new

More than 7,600 asylum seekers were intercepted by the RCMP from January to April, 2018 \u2013 almost triple the number in the same period the year before

The Globe spoke with a number of those travelers in late 2017, who cited the policies of U.S

President Donald Trump as their reason for making the trip: In January, 2017, Mr

Trump issued a ban on U.S

entry visas for people from seven Muslim-majority countries

Because of court challenges, the ban has changed and now bars people from eight countries, six of them Muslim-majority

Meanwhile, U.S

authorities have stepped up measures to deport unauthorized immigrants

The majority of asylum seekers have crossed the border in Quebec; Manitoba is another major crossing point.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3eBut Canada doesn\u2019t actually grant entry to asylum-seekers coming from the U.S., because it is considered a safe country \u2013 and if refugee applicants are rejected in one country, they can\u2019t take a second shot at asylum in the other

(That\u2019s the essence of the Safe Third Country agreement between the two countries.) Still, nothing stops refugees from crossing unofficially, and giving themselves up to be arrested

Once they\u2019re on Canadian soil, they are entitled to a hearing

That\u2019s what many asylum seekers have been banking on."}, "ASKYH4I5GFGVTINVBHUT7HRPT4":{"refVal":"FoodWaste","title":"Why is food waste a problem for the environment?","time":"30","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","text":"No one likes to waste food, but few of us think of the food we throw in the trash as a problem for the environment

After all, it\u2019s organic matter and it\u2019s biodegradable

But as food decomposes, it releases methane \u2013 a greenhouse gas that is 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide in contributing to climate change

Adding to this environmental impact is the fact that the land, water and fertilizer that contributed to producing that food \u2013 as well as resources used in packaging and shipping it to the consumer \u2013 have been wasted

This is not a small problem: Globally, about one-third of all food produced goes to waste.", "more":[{"text":"All of this releases about 3.3-billion tonnes of methane annually, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

In Canada, $31-billion worth of food (mostly fruits, vegetables and meat) is tossed out each year."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eHow is this happening?\x3c/strong\x3e Household waste accounts for about half of the food in landfills, by some measures

Other contributors include inefficient planting at farms, improper packaging or storage at food plants, restaurants that serve overly large portions, and retailers tossing what they can\u2019t sell

Some people in the food industry are attempting to address the problem

A few major retailers have said they are working toward \u201czero food waste.\u201d That means 90 per cent of food usually thrown out that is redirected through recycling and composting, donations, or repackaging

It\u2019s a work in progress."}]}, "KVUILMD4IBAZZOLKHI6ADI6GOY":{"time":"60","title":"Need some background on the conflict in Syria? ","text":"Remember the Arab Spring? The pro-democracy demonstrations that swept across the Middle East and North Africa starting in 2010, came to Syria in 2011

The roots of the current conflict lie there

President Bashar al-Assad is technically an elected leader, but he first came to power in a 2000 referendum where he ran unopposed, taking over from his father who had ruled the country for 30 years after staging a bloodless coup

His 2007 reelection also had no opposition candidate

Inspired by the Arab Spring, some Syrians \u2013 dissatisfied with high unemployment, lack of political freedoms and corruption \u2013 held protests

The government shut these down using deadly force; in response, dissidents armed themselves, violence escalated and the country descended into a \x3cstrong\x3ecivil war\x3c/strong\x3e.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \nBut it\u2019s become a lot more complicated than just the government vs

the rebels

Numerous \x3cstrong\x3eforeign powers\x3c/strong\x3e including the U.S., Russia, Iran and others have their own priorities in the country, and are contributing to the fighting

Human rights groups have condemned the use of chemical attacks, which have killed hundreds of people since the conflict began

The UN has blamed some of those attacks on the Syrian government and one on the Islamic State group

", "refVal":"Syria","altTitle":"Need a catch-up on the conflict in Syria?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","more":[{"text":"Foreign powers have contributed to the Syrian conflict with air strikes, fighters on the ground, money, weapons, or some combination of these."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho are those foreign powers?\x3c/strong\x3e The U.S

is helping anti-Assad forces but is also in Syria to fight the terrorist group the Islamic State, and has carried out air strikes to retaliate for the government\u2019s use of chemical weapons against citizens

European countries such as France and Britain have had similar motives for their military operations in Syria, and are also dealing with an influx of refugees created by the conflict

Russia is allied with the Assad government, and has taken his side in the civil war

Russia and Assad have also been fighting the Islamic State, separate from the U.S.-led effort

Iran is also on Assad\u2019s side, and sees Syria as a strategic point to push back against Israel\u2019s influence in the region

Israel is worried about Iran\u2019s growing presence in this border country and has pushed back

Gulf states such as Saudi Arabia and Qatar also oppose Assad

Turkey is anti-Assad but is also fighting Kurdish forces there: Turkish Kurds want their own independent country and Turkey has fought against their growing influence in border states including Iraq and now Syria."}]}, "SLMMPHQRABGONA4IN3EFI2QSAI":{"refVal":"CryptocurrencyMiner","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","title":"What are cryptocurrency miners?","time":"45","text":"Cryptocurrency, broadly speaking, is electronic cash; unlike a typical currency such as the Canadian dollar, it\u2019s not controlled by any single authority like a central bank, government or financial institution

Bitcoin was the first type of cryptocurrency \u2013 and is still the best-known one

It emerged in early 2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \x3cstrong\x3eHow does it work?\x3c/strong\x3e Cryptocurrencies like bitcoin have all their transactions recorded in a public ledger, with buyers\u2019 and sellers\u2019 identities hidden using cryptography (that\u2019s where the \u201ccrypto\u201d in the name comes from.) The computers that contribute to that network are called \u201ccryptocurrency miners.\u201d The idea is that the currency is secure because the ledger is not stored on a single machine that could be vulnerable to hacking or manipulation; instead, a network of computers (the miners) work together to create a shared record of all the transaction data (sort of like a bank ledger), called the \u201cblockchain.\u201d", "more":[{"text":"Cryptocurrency miners secure that information by solving complex, automatically-generated math puzzles; each time a miner does that, others in the network verify the\u202fwork and then that block of data is added to the \u201cblockchain\u201d \u2013 the system of shared information that makes the currency work

Cryptocurrency exchanges sell the currency in online marketplaces such as Bitstamp, Coinbase, Cryptsy, and many others, and some are sold at specialty bank machines

The supply of bitcoins is finite: their programming caps the total number at about 21-million coins

That makes cryptocurrency different from typical currency: a central bank can choose to print more money

"}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhy you\u2019re hearing so much about this:\x3c/strong\x3e At first, the value of cryptocurrencies was zero (that\u2019s still the case for some types.) But some, like bitcoin, have seen their value skyrocket \u2013 however,\u202f some warn this is a bubble, and those values could evaporate just as easily

Concerns have also been raised about cryptocurrency being used by people who want to hide financial dealings, such as terrorists, drug traffickers, money launderers and ransomware creators (people who hack others\u2019 computers and demand ransom for the return of their information and other valuable files.) Cryptocurrencies\u2019 future value will depend partly on the extent to which they can be used like money: most major retailers do not yet accept payment via cryptocurrency, though some online stores are experimenting with it

"}]}, "7AMONWEK3BCYLK46KWXKPFU6A4":{"refVal":"WineDry","title":"What does it mean to say a wine is \u201cdry\u201d?","time":"35","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","text":"Dry is the opposite of sweet

A wine\u2019s\u202fsweetness or\u202fdryness is largely dependent on residual sugar \u2013 or RS in the wine geek\u2019s argot \u2013 which is the natural grape sugar left after fermentation

After grapes are crushed, yeast feeds off grape sugar to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide

Yeast rarely finish the job completely: there\u2019s always a little sugar left, even in \u201cdry\u201d wines

Less than two grams of sugar per litre of fluid is considered very dry

There are other factors: a lot of acidity in wine, for example, can make it taste pretty dry even if it contains much more sugar than two grams per litre, and a fruity wine may taste subtly sweet even if it is dry.", "more":[{"text":"Some French wines may include \u201csec\u201d on the label to connote that it is dry, though it\u2019s not often they specify it; \u201cmoelleux\u201d and \u201cdoux\u201d denote sweet

In German, \u201ctrocken\u201d means dry

You can also check alcohol content, though it\u2019s not a perfect measure: lower alcohol tends to mean the yeast did not finish the job of converting sugar to alcohol, and 11 per cent alcohol or lower means that it\u2019s probably at least a little sweet."}]}, "K7MULKWAMJC55NADHCTQQHMDJY":{"refVal":"FoodSecurity","title":"What is food security?","time":"25","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"People\u202fwho\u202fhave\u202f\u201cfood security\u201d\u202fhave\u202faccess to enough affordable, nutritious food to remain active and healthy

This is largely determined by income and\u202f geography

Quantity is important -- whether the food is acquired through local agriculture, through trade with food-producing areas, or through aid, people must have enough of it\u202fto be considered food secure

Access alone is not enough: the food also has to be nutritious\u202fand safe to eat, so people must have access to proper storage, sanitation systems, hygiene practices and clean water."}, "3I3J43AWGRAMJBQG2ZOWOPZTHM":{"refVal":"MMIW","title":"Background on the missing and murdered indigenous women in Canada","time":"60","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":'Indigenous women are more than three times as likely as non-aboriginals to be victims of violent crime, according to Statistics Canada, and they are much more likely to go missing or die violently

Aboriginal women are overrepresented among the victims of serial killers, and appear frequently in unsolved cases of disappearances and homicides \u2014 such as those in the Edmonton area or along B.C.\u2019s "highway of tears." Poverty and marginalization, addiction and other issues play a role in these women\u2019s vulnerability; so do the intergenerational trauma and family breakdowns associated with Canada\u2019s colonial legacy and residential schools

The role of racism in unsolved cases is hotly debated

Some allege that homicides and disappearances involving aboriginal victims are investigated with less rigour than others

Police agencies have denied this

The ongoing independent national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls stated, in its interim report, that \u201csimply being Indigenous and female is a risk.\u201d The inquiry itself has been plagued by delays, some directors have left, and some families and survivors have expressed frustration with the process

', "more":[{"text":"Aboriginal women are overrepresented among victims of serial killers

Indigenous women make up just 4 per cent of Canada\u2019s female population; but 21 per cent of homicides of females where a conviction was obtained against a serial killer involved an aboriginal victim, according to a 2015 Globe analysis of more than 30 years of homicide data

That\u2019s just the convictions: because many serial homicides are likely never identified as such, the true number of female victims of serial killers is likely higher than the official record shows

Consider the case of B.C

serial killer Robert Pickton, who was convicted of killing six women; he claimed to have murdered dozens, and other cases where DNA and women\u2019s belongings were found on his farm were not brought to trial."}]}, "ONYZTJYY7JAGZGBKDVUSIL5UHM":{"refVal":"5G","title":"What is 5G?","time":"60","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"Telecom firms all over the world are spending billions to upgrade their networks with new 5G technology

5G is short for the \u201cfifth generation\u201d of wireless networks, the latest form of connectivity that is needed to cope with the explosion in the number of mobile devices

5G is a way to ensure those devices are reliably kept online

Right now, Canadian wireless companies use 4G networks (also known as LTE or \u201clong-term evolution\u201d) which do support fast downloads and easy streaming of content

But billions of new connected devices are due to come online in the next decade, transmitting significantly more data

So speeds and bandwidth capacity both need to be much higher, and \u201clatency\u201d (the time it takes to send a signal from one point to the next) must be much lower than it is today

5G will do this by using new spectrum frequencies \u2013 i.e

the radio waves that carry cellular signals through the air

To do that, companies need to build new infrastructure to help their networks access those frequencies more reliably

They are investing heavily to make that happen

In Canada, true 5G technology likely won\u2019t be deployed until about 2020.", "more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhy does this matter?\x3c/strong\x3e Lower latency and higher bandwidth will enable new technologies to work \u2013 such as medical devices that share x-ray images, automation systems in factories and future innovations such as self-driving cars

Meanwhile, other parts of 5G networks can be set aside specifically for devices that don\u2019t need to use much data, such as wirelessly-connected \u201csmart city\u201d sensors that help optimize the performance of traffic lights and utilities, and other public services."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eSo how does 5G actually work?\x3c/strong\x3e Right now, the wireless signal to your mobile phone travels across \u201clow-band\u201d radio waves, or spectrum, meaning the wavelengths are longer and can travel farther and penetrate buildings

So they offer reliable coverage, but they aren\u2019t as good at carrying data as higher-frequency waves

5G will add to the \u201clow-band\u201d network by making use of that very \u201chigh-band\u201d spectrum, which can carry huge amounts of data but can\u2019t travel as far

So, networks will have to use the equipment that has always carried low-band spectrum (a mix of traditional cell-phone towers and antennas on rooftops) but also install a web of small \u201ccells\u201d at lower heights, in order to allow that huge bandwidth to hopscotch over shorter distances

This takes a lot of new wireless infrastructure \u2013 and more smaller cells will need to be installed in places where there are more demands on the network

In Canada, carriers are running tests now and investing in new radio equipment and cell sites to make this happen

The idea is that with a web of wireless coverage, people can move around a city without any breaks in service

International bodies are also finalizing performance and technical standards, and governments around the world are consulting on the use of these new spectrum frequencies."}]}, "HFSEEYZWJ5BPHHPSR7YU2NV36E":{"refVal":"SpecialCounsel","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(18)","title":"What is a special counsel? ","time":"45","text":"The U.S

Department of Justice has dozens of attorneys whose role is to represent the government in federal legal cases in courts across the country

A special counsel is just like a U.S

attorney with an important exception: they mostly don\u2019t have to tell the Justice Department what they are doing

(Though \u201csignificant actions\u201d must be reported to the attorney general.) A special counsel is considered to be more independent than a regular prosecutor, and is therefore generally brought in to run politically-sensitive investigations

Unlike a regular prosecutor, a special counsel can only be fired by the attorney general, who must prove there was \u201cgood cause.\u201d After an investigation, a special counsel must provide a confidential report to the attorney general, explaining why legal charges resulted (or didn\u2019t)

The attorney general in turn must tell Congress the investigation is done, and can decide to make that report public, but does not have to.", "more":[{"text":"A special counsel has many of the same authorities as a U.S

attorney, such as launching investigations, bringing criminal charges, and handing out subpoenas (an order that requires someone to appear in court or another legal proceeding, or to produce documents and other records.) Robert Mueller is the special counsel investigating alleged interference by Russia in the 2016 U.S

presidential election, and whether anyone on the Trump campaign was involved

Another example of a special counsel was Patrick Fitzgerald, who investigated the public exposure of Valerie Plame\u2019s identity as a CIA agent

Do not confuse the term special counsel with \u201cindependent counsel\u201d or \u201cspecial prosecutor.\u201d Those are old roles that came about following the Watergate scandal in the \u201870s but they are now defunct; a special counsel is a similar concept but is the only term currently in use."}]}, "C4W4KFQJJBHVLM5ZT452KJDAFM":{"refVal":"vaping2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","title":"What is vaping and how does it work? ","time":"40","text":"Vaping is an alternative to smoking that is growing in popularity

E-cigarettes are hand-held devices that make vapour for the user to inhale, or \u201cvape.\u201d A battery-powered heating element inside the device is activated when the user sucks on the mouthpiece, causing liquid within the chamber to boil

The steam is then inhaled

The liquid usually contains water, flavourings, propylene glycol (a common moistening ingredient in many food products and cosmetics) and varying amounts of nicotine \u2013 though some are nicotine-free

Sometimes a cannabis compound called cannabidoil (CBD) or tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, which is responsible for the high from cannabis) can also be added to the liquid and vaped.\x3cbr/\x3e\x3cbr/\x3eVaping is considered less harmful than smoking because smoke is the source of many of the carcinogens associated with the habit

However, there is some debate about how much safer it is."}, "IIIE2GIV2NBLZIBB6DYLCJHWTE":{"refVal":"cryptocurrency","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","title":"What is cryptocurrency/bitcoin and how does it work? ","time":"45","text":"Bandages are the product and Band-Aid is one type; so it is with cryptocurrency and bitcoin

Cryptocurrency, broadly, is electronic cash; unlike a typical currency such as the Canadian dollar, it\u2019s not controlled by any single authority like a central bank, government or financial institution

Bitcoin was the first type of cryptocurrency \u2013 and is still the best-known one

It emerged in early 2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis.\x3cbr/\x3e\x3cbr/\x3e\x3cstrong\x3eHow does it work?\x3c/strong\x3e Cryptocurrencies like bitcoin have all their transactions recorded in a public ledger, with buyers\u2019 and sellers\u2019 identities hidden using cryptography (that\u2019s where the \u201ccrypto\u201d in the name comes from.) The idea is that the currency is secure because the ledger is not stored on a single machine that could be vulnerable to hacking or manipulation; instead, a network of computers work together to create a shared record of all the transaction data (sort of like a bank ledger), called the \u201cblockchain.\u201d", "more":[{"text":"The computers that contribute to that network are called \u201ccryptocurrency miners.\u201d They secure that information by solving complex, automatically-generated math puzzles; each time a miner does that, others in the network verify the work and then that block of data is added to the \u201cblockchain\u201d \u2013 the system of shared information that makes the currency work

Cryptocurrency exchanges sell the currency in online marketplaces such as Bitstamp, Coinbase, Cryptsy, and many others, and some are sold at specialty bank machines

The supply of bitcoins is finite: their programming caps the total number at about 21-million coins

That makes cryptocurrency different from typical currency: a central bank can choose to print more money."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhy you\u2019re hearing so much about this:\x3c/strong\x3e At first, the value of cryptocurrencies was zero (that\u2019s still the case for some types.) But some, like bitcoin, have seen their value skyrocket \u2013 however, some warn this is a bubble, and those values could evaporate just as easily

Concerns have also been raised about cryptocurrency being used by people who want to hide financial dealings, such as terrorists, drug traffickers, money launderers and ransomware creators (people who hack others\u2019 computers and demand ransom for the return of their information and other valuable files.) Cryptocurrencies\u2019 future value will depend partly on the extent to which they can be used like money: most major retailers do not yet accept payment via cryptocurrency, though some online stores are experimenting with it."}]}, "5NFI3NJG3RH6FMRMUK6IU6DEHI":{"refVal":"blockchain","title":"What is blockchain?","time":"35","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(50)","text":"Blockchain is the technology that powers cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin

Say you buy something with your credit card; your bank records that transaction on its ledger and you depend on the bank\u2019s security systems to keep your transaction data safe

With blockchain, there is no single ledger held in a central place

Instead, a network of computers work together to create and constantly update a shared record, and to keep it more secure than it could be if held in one spot

Those computers secure that information by solving complex, automatically-generated math puzzles; each one\u2019s work is verified by others in the network

Once verified, each block of data is added to that \u201cblockchain.\u201d", "more":[{"text":"This technology is not just relevant to making cryptocurrencies work: because of its promised ability to verify transactions without a middleman and the potential to protect sensitive information from hacking, other industries are beginning to consider using blockchain technology

For example, advertising leaders have discussed using blockchain to prevent advertising fraud and make digital ad buying more reliable

Financial institutions, also highly concerned about securing data, see potential in it as well."}]}, "676ZV7PTCFB3NA7OHEXK43CUQY":{"time":"80","title":"What are market indexes like the Dow and the S\x26P 500 and why do they matter? ","text":"A \x3cstrong\x3emarket index\x3c/strong\x3e is used to show broad trends in stock markets by taking a large sampling of stocks and tracking fluctuations in how they all trade

(Some indexes also track other investment vehicles such as bonds, but when you hear about what the market is doing using an index, it\u2019s usually a stock market index we\u2019re talking about.) \x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nCommon indexes you\u2019re likely to hear about include the Nikkei (Tokyo), Hang Seng (Hong Kong), the Dow (New York), the S\x26P 500 (New York), the FTSE (London) and the S\x26P/TSX Composite Index (Toronto).\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \nYou see index trends reported in the news for a few reasons: First, stocks in various companies usually make up at least part of many people\u2019s investment portfolios \u2013 even if they\u2019re not into trading themselves

(Do you invest in a mutual fund or ETF? You\u2019ve got stocks.) So a big move in the market often has an impact on people\u2019s savings

Second, the markets are part of what\u2019s going on in the economy as a whole, and big swings can indicate larger economic trends.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \nBut it\u2019s important to take that with a grain of salt: the stock market is primarily a reflection of the health of the corporate sector, while the real economy takes into account how consumers are doing as well \u2013 not just how corporate stocks perform

So while the two things are related, they need not always be in sync: Looked at in aggregate, the stock market can reflect investors\u2019 fear or confidence about how the economy is doing (think of the drop in stock markets that accompanied the 2007-2008 global financial crisis), but such trends are not always a proxy for the health of the economy.", "refVal":"MarketIndex","altTitle":"Some background on market indexes like the Dow and the S\x26P 500, and why they matter","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(25)","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eDoes it seem like the markets are always setting new records?\x3c/strong\x3e Remember, inflation plays a role

When indexes are not adjusted for inflation, they look like they are on a consistent and inexorable path upward

But it may not necessarily be so."},{"text":"Many of the indexes have longer names: For example, when you hear about \x3cstrong\x3ethe Dow\x3c/strong\x3e, people are talking about the Dow Jones Industrial Average (this measures 30 stocks that trade on the New York Stock Exchange, not to be confused with the Dow Jones Transportation Average, which tracks stocks of 20 transportation companies on the same exchange.) The Dow was created more than a century ago by the co-founder of Dow Jones and the first editor of the Wall Street Journal, Charles Dow

Because it tracks so few companies and is price-weighted (giving the highest-priced stocks more influence over the index\u2019s value) the Dow is sometimes criticized for not accurately representing market activity

(It is still closely watched, however.) "}, {"text":"More modern indexes like the TSX Composite Index (which measures 300 stocks on the Toronto Stock Exchange) are usually \u201cmarket-weighted\u201d instead of price-weighted, meaning that they track stocks with the biggest market capitalization (that\u2019s the value of all of a company\u2019s shares, rather than the price of an individual share) on a given exchange

Many people see that as a broader picture of the market, but even a market-weighted index does not track the performance of thousands of smaller companies\u2019 stocks \u2013 so it\u2019s not a complete picture, even if it\u2019s a more reliable one."}]}, "FEDLV2EFOVC43LI4FE4YDTHM3A":{"refVal":"WinePoints","title":"What do point scores for wine mean?","time":"30","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","text":"The American wine critic Robert Parker popularized the 100-point scale for wine

(Think of it like a university grade.) Critics score wines in relation to others of the same style or grape variety; a 90-point barbera may be just as \u201cgood\u201d as a 90-point cabernet sauvignon

But the wines will not taste the same.","more":[{"text":"You\u2019re likely to see a lot of high scores in reviews

That\u2019s because critics prefer to focus on recommending wines of a decent quality rather than pillorying plonk

Obviously, scores are subjective, and can differ depending on the writer \u2013 for reliable guidance, seek out a consensus of reviews or the score of a critic you feel has guided you well before."}]}, "7DD5EBS63NCONN73MNLA7XIFV4":{"refVal":"TimHortons","title":"Need a quick catch-up on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?","time":"55","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","text":"Storied Canadian coffee chain Tim Hortons is a franchise, meaning that each of its stores is owned not by the company but by a franchisee

Franchisees pay annual license fees to use the company\u2019s brand; they buy supplies such as food and equipment from the company; and they agree to follow standards the company sets for its stores

Tim Hortons has faced pushback from some franchisees, who say heavy cost-cutting at the top is hurting their businesses

Brazilian firm 3G Capital acquired Tim Hortons at the end of 2014, and began cracking down on costs

In March 2017, a group of franchisees now claiming to represent more than half of Tim Hortons\u2019 Canadian owners formed the Great White North Franchisee Association

The GWNFA claims cost-cutting has affected the quality of the supplies franchisees buy from the company, such as cups and trays \u2013 and it claims that cost-cutting benefits only the parent company, because franchisees end up paying more for cheaper goods

The association also claims that the fees they pay to contribute to marketing programs have been improperly diverted for other corporate uses.", "more":[{"text":"In Canada, the franchisees\u2019 association has launched two separate legal cases seeking class action status (meaning the right to take legal action on behalf of a group of people.) One lawsuit deals with alleged misuse of the advertising fund; the other alleges that the company has gotten in the way of franchisees\u2019 right to unionize

A group of U.S

franchisees has also launched a case paving the way for a class action lawsuit over the alleged misuse of the advertising funds."}]}, "6ULOX6SIZ5MUFER6LRSQY3ELWM":{"refVal":"vaping","title":"What is vaping and how do e-cigarettes work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)","time":"60","text":"Vaping is an alternative to smoking that is growing in popularity

E-cigarettes are hand-held devices that make vapour for the user to inhale, or \u201cvape.\u201d A battery-powered heating element inside the device is activated when the user sucks on the mouthpiece, causing liquid within the chamber to boil

The steam is then inhaled

The liquid usually contains water, flavourings, propylene glycol (a common moistening ingredient in many food products and cosmetics) and varying amounts of nicotine \u2013 though some are nicotine-free

Some devices produce vapour by heating a small amount of tobacco, but not burning it like a cigarette does

Although technically they are \u201cheated tobacco products,\u201d or HTPs, some people refer to them as e-cigarettes as well

There are also hybrid devices that contain both liquid and a small amount of tobacco.", "more":[{"text":"E-cigarettes are considered less harmful than cigarettes because they do not produce smoke, which is the source of many of the carcinogens associated with smoking

However, there is some debate about how much safer they are \u2013 especially those that contain nicotine \u2013 and whether they are an aid to quit smoking, or, conversely, lead users to take up the habit."},{"text":"In Canada, vapour products were a CAD$282.6-million industry in 2016, nearly 10 times the size of the market just five years earlier, according to research firm Euromonitor International

E-cigarettes appeared in the Canadian market around 2007, and Health Canada effectively banned them for sale here in 2009

However, with little enforcement, vaping stores and e-commerce sites have popped up across the country

An amendment to Canada\u2019s Tobacco Act is expected to take effect soon, regulating the sale, advertising and labeling of vaping products \u2013 whether or not they contain nicotine

This will place restrictions on claims about the products\u2019 effectiveness for quitting smoking, and will ban the promotion of candy-like flavours that could attract underage users, among other rules

Once the laws are clarified, big tobacco companies are expected to aggressively market their e-cigarette products here, and the market could expand significantly."}]}, "URNUZGBR7FCGPCXZO3LGZCM3M4":{"refVal":"GDPR","title":"Need a quick catch-up on Europe\u2019s new privacy laws?","time":"35","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(17)","text":"The European Union has ignited a global discussion about the rights of individuals to control their personal information, with the passage of a new law called the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

It will impose major changes in privacy controls for any businesses that handle the data of people who live in any of the EU\u2019s 28 member countries

(That includes companies not based in the EU.) The changes include stricter rules for gaining consent to use people\u2019s information (fine print legalese won\u2019t cut it; agreements must be easily understood) \u2013 and the right for people to revoke that consent, among many other new rules

The law has caused companies to revise their privacy policies, because it imposes very heavy fines for those that don\u2019t comply.", "more":[{"text":"Under GDPR, people have the right to see what information a company has collected on them

If a data breach such as hacking occurs, companies must notify, within three days, anyone whose data is affected

People also have the \u201cright to be forgotten\u201d: they can ask for their data to be erased and no longer processed or distributed

There are also special rules for the protection of children\u2019s personal information

Companies found in violation could be fined up to \u20ac20-million (almost $30-million Canadian) or 4 per cent of their total global revenue, whichever is greater

The law takes effect on May 25, 2018."}]}, "3SZQ6BNNG5DSZJZXPYDDBQUSUM":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence? Is it different from machine learning? ","time":"55","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","text":"The basic difference between these two terms is the distinction between the concept of intelligence, and the process of learning

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eArtificial intelligence (AI)\x3c/strong\x3e is a term dating back to the 50s, when it was defined as \u201cthe science and engineering of making intelligent machines.\u201d When we talk about AI, we\u2019re usually talking broadly about the concept of machines that can develop abilities usually associated with human intelligence \u2013 like learning a language, spontaneously navigating a roadway when driving a car or spotting the difference between an image of a cat or a dog.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eMachine learning\x3c/strong\x3e refers to various methods for developing AI

Many computers function by being explicitly programmed to follow a specific series of instructions; machine learning, in contrast, attempts to train a computer to complete tasks or solve problems on its own

People have been working on this for decades

Why are you hearing so much about it now? Because only in recent years have our computers been fast enough, and able to process large enough sets of information, to make more complex developments in machine learning possible.", "refVal":"ai_old"},"PY26MPAKGRE6RKIWEHH52ZU5CE":{"title":"What is machine learning? Is it different from AI?","time":"55","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(13)","text":"The basic difference between these two terms is the distinction between the concept of intelligence, and the process of learning

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eArtificial intelligence (AI)\x3c/strong\x3e is a term dating back to the 50s, when it was defined as \u201cthe science and engineering of making intelligent machines.\u201d When we talk about AI, we\u2019re usually talking broadly about the concept of machines that can develop abilities usually associated with human intelligence \u2013 like learning a language, spontaneously navigating a roadway when driving a car or spotting the difference between an image of a cat or a dog.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eMachine learning\x3c/strong\x3e refers to various methods for developing AI

Many computers function by being explicitly programmed to follow a specific series of instructions; machine learning, in contrast, attempts to train a computer to complete tasks or solve problems on its own

People have been working on this for decades

Why are you hearing so much about it now? Because only in recent years have our computers been fast enough, and able to process large enough sets of information, to make more complex developments in machine learning possible.", "refVal":"ai_old2"},"B2RWUAJ2UNDWZLJL7MD2FW5LSY":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and what is bitcoin and how does it work? ","time":"45","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","text":"Bandages are the product and Band-Aid is one type; so it is with cryptocurrency and bitcoin

Cryptocurrency, broadly, is electronic cash; unlike a typical currency such as the Canadian dollar, it\u2019s not controlled by any single authority like a central bank, government or financial institution

Bitcoin was the first type of cryptocurrency \u2013 and is still the best-known one

It emerged in early 2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eHow does it work?\x3c/strong\x3e Cryptocurrencies like bitcoin have all their transactions recorded in a public ledger, with buyers\u2019 and sellers\u2019 identities hidden using cryptography (that\u2019s where the \u201ccrypto\u201d in the name comes from.) The idea is that the currency is secure because the ledger is not stored on a single machine that could be vulnerable to hacking or manipulation; instead, a network of computers work together to create a shared record of all the transaction data (sort of like a bank ledger), called the \u201cblockchain.\u201d", "more":[{"text":"The computers that contribute to that network are called \u201ccryptocurrency miners.\u201d They secure that information by solving complex, automatically-generated math puzzles; each time a miner does that, others in the network verify the work and then that block of data is added to the \u201cblockchain\u201d \u2013 the system of shared information that makes the currency work

Cryptocurrency exchanges sell the currency in online marketplaces such as Bitstamp, Coinbase, Cryptsy, and many others, and some are sold at specialty bank machines

The supply of bitcoins is finite: their programming caps the total number at about 21-million coins

That makes cryptocurrency different from typical currency: a central bank can choose to print more money."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhy you\u2019re hearing so much about this:\x3c/strong\x3e At first, the value of cryptocurrencies was zero (that\u2019s still the case for some types.) But some, like bitcoin, have seen their value skyrocket \u2013 however, some warn this is a bubble, and those values could evaporate just as easily

Concerns have also been raised about cryptocurrency being used by people who want to hide financial dealings, such as terrorists, drug traffickers, money launderers and ransomware creators (people who hack others\u2019 computers and demand ransom for the return of their information and other valuable files.) Cryptocurrencies\u2019 future value will depend partly on the extent to which they can be used like money: most major retailers do not yet accept payment via cryptocurrency, though some online stores are experimenting with it."}], "refVal":"crypto_old"},"LDD5CCN3WBFABOXJMYF5NCJCBE":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence?","time":"55","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(12)","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eArtificial intelligence (AI)\x3c/strong\x3e is a term dating back to the 50s, when it was defined as \u201cthe science and engineering of making intelligent machines.\u201d When we talk about AI, we\u2019re usually talking broadly about the concept of machines that can develop abilities usually associated with human intelligence \u2013 like learning a language, spontaneously navigating a roadway when driving a car or spotting the difference between an image of a cat or a dog.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eMachine learning\x3c/strong\x3e refers to various methods for developing AI

Many computers function by being explicitly programmed to follow a specific series of instructions; machine learning, in contrast, attempts to train a computer to complete tasks or solve problems on its own

People have been working on this for decades

Why are you hearing so much about it now? Because only in recent years have our computers been fast enough, and able to process large enough sets of information, to make more complex developments in machine learning possible.", "refVal":"ai_old3"},"SERKIF25SBHCDAH5ULHVDUM3Q4":{"time":"65","title":"Need a quick catch-up on the Russia probe?","text":"This investigation is looking into alleged interference by Russia in the 2016 U.S

presidential election, and whether anyone on Donald Trump\u2019s campaign was involved, during or after the race

The U.S Justice Department and the FBI launched the investigation, which is led by special counsel Robert Mueller

It\u2019s the largest probe of ties between Russia and the Trump campaign (others, including the Senate intelligence committee, Senate judiciary committee, House intelligence committee and House oversight committee are also investigating)

So far, it has resulted in Mueller bringing charges against Russian hackers and spies for interfering in the election, and against some Trump campaign associates for lying to the FBI and for laundering money

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nThe investigation is primarily focused on two crimes: \x3cstrong\x3e1) Collusion.\x3c/strong\x3e Did the Russian government hack into the servers of the Democratic National Committee (the arm of the Democratic Party that supports candidates seeking election) \u2013 leaking confidential e-mails to whistleblower website Wikileaks \u2013 in order to help the Trump campaign? And did anyone on the Trump campaign work with Russians who interfered in the election? \x3cstrong\x3e 2) Obstruction of justice.\x3c/strong\x3e Did Mr

Trump attempt to interfere with the investigation into that first question? All of the investigations, including Mueller\u2019s, will end with reports on what they found (though Mueller\u2019s report may not necessarily be made public.) It is not clear how long this will take

", "refVal":"russia_probe","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhat are the collusion allegations?\x3c/strong\x3e The FBI, other intelligence agencies and the Justice Department allege that hackers who broke into the Democratic National Committee\u2019s servers in July of 2016 were working on behalf of the Russian government \u2013 and that they leaked embarrassing e-mails to Wikileaks in order to sway the election in favour of Donald Trump

(Among other things, the e-mails showed that the DNC \u2013 which is supposed to be neutral \u2013 favoured Hillary Clinton for the party\u2019s presidential candidate over her competitor for the nomination, Bernie Sanders.) There are indications, which the investigators are looking into, that people in Mr

Trump\u2019s circle knew about the hack

At the time, Mr

Trump publicly stated that Russia should hack into Ms

Clinton\u2019s e-mails and release them."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhat are the obstruction allegations?\x3c/strong\x3e The investigation into the DNC e-mail hack started immediately after it happened, in July of 2016, when the election campaign was still ongoing

At first, FBI James Comey was leading the investigation, but, a few months after taking office, Mr

Trump fired him, in May, 2017

The White House said Mr

Comey\u2019s dismissal had to do with his performance at the FBI; Mr

Comey has said it was a result of the Russia investigation

Mr

Trump later said in a TV interview that when he decided to fire Mr

Comey, \u201cI said to myself, I said, \u2018You know, this Russia thing with Trump and Russia is a made-up story.\u2019\u201d Mr

Comey told a Senate committee hearing that Mr

Trump attempted to meddle in the investigation more than once, including asking Mr

Comey to \u201clift the cloud\u201d that the probe had caused over his administration

Mr

Comey\u2019s firing was widely decried, and led to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein (acting in the place of attorney general Jeff Sessions, who has recused himself from the investigation) to appoint special counsel Robert Mueller to take over the probe."}]}, "QU7CTP4O5RE3LPMNDLSB4FGNTM":{"time":"60","title":"Need a quick catch-up on the U.S

travel ban?","text":"The ban has taken a few forms

The most recent one bans U.S

entry visas for people from six Muslim-majority countries (Chad, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Syria and Yemen) and two that are not majority Muslim (North Korea, which doesn\u2019t seek many U.S

entry visas anyway, and Venezuela, where it applies only to some government officials and their families).\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nDebate has raged over whether this is a policy meant to discriminate against Muslims

Through all its iterations, the ban has never applied to more than 15 per cent of the global population of 1.6-billion Muslims

However, U.S

President Donald Trump himself has said he wanted to ban Muslims specifically: during his presidential campaign, reacting to a terrorist attack in San Bernardino, Calif., he advocated for \u201ca total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country\u2019s representatives can figure out what the hell is going on.\u201d The president has said the ban is about terrorism, not religion

In late April, the U.S

Supreme Court heard arguments that focused partly on whether the first two bans were driven by \u201creligious animus.\u201d In June of 2018, the Supreme Court ruled that the ban did not violate U.S

immigration law or the constitutional guarantee of freedom of religion \u2013 overturning lower courts\u2019 attempts to put the policy on hold.", "refVal":"travel_ban","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","more":[{"text":"It can be hard to keep track of the travel ban, because its form has changed a few times

Here\u2019s the history: The first ban was in January, 2017, when an executive order from the President declared a 90-day ban on issuing entry visas to people from seven countries with majority Muslim populations: Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen

A number of federal courts blocked that one

Then, another 90-day ban was introduced in July, 2017: that one took Iraq off the list, and allowed entry from the other countries if the visitor could prove a family relationship in the U.S

(Relationships that make the cut: parent, spouse or fianc\u00e9(e), son or daughter, sibling, or son- or daughter-in-law

Grandparents were also later given permission to visit.) Legitimate business relationships, such as with an employer, could also do the trick (these have to be \u201cformal\u201d and \u201cdocumented\u201d and not created \u201cfor the purpose of evading\u201d the ban.) Then, in September, the newest ban kept five of the original countries (Iran, Libya, Somalia, Syria and Yemen) and added three (North Korea, Chad and Venezuela)

And it scrapped the 90-day period, instead saying the ban would be up for review only if those governments improved measures like sharing information with the U.S

It also had no provisions for relationships with family or employers."}]}, "EDRKBSZCGFFDPNBLUSFSLRXUUE":{"title":"What are market indexes like the Dow and why do they matter?","time":"90","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(26)","text":"A market index is used to show broad trends in stock markets by taking a large sampling of stocks and tracking fluctuations in how they all trade

(Some indexes also track other investment vehicles such as bonds, but when you hear about what the market is doing using an index, it\u2019s usually a stock market index we\u2019re talking about.) Common indexes you\u2019re likely to hear about include the Nikkei (Tokyo), Hang Seng (Hong Kong), the Dow (New York), the S\x26P 500 (New York), the FTSE (London) and the S\x26P/TSX Composite Index (Toronto)

You see index trends reported in the news for a few reasons: First, stocks in various companies usually make up at least part of many people\u2019s investment portfolios \u2013 even if they\u2019re not into trading themselves

(Do you invest in a mutual fund or ETF? You\u2019ve got stocks.) So a big move in the market often has an impact on people\u2019s savings

Second, the markets are part of what\u2019s going on in the economy as a whole, and big swings can indicate larger economic trends

But it\u2019s important to take that with a grain of salt: the stock market is primarily a reflection of the health of the corporate sector, while the real economy takes into account how consumers are doing as well \u2013 not just how corporate stocks perform

So while the two things are related, they need not always be in sync: Looked at in aggregate, the stock market can reflect investors\u2019 fear or confidence about how the economy is doing (think of the drop in stock markets that accompanied the 2007-2008 global financial crisis), but such trends are not always a proxy for the health of the economy

Does it seem like the markets are always setting new records? Remember, inflation plays a role

When indexes are not adjusted for inflation, they look like they are on a consistent and inexorable path upward

But it may not necessarily be so.", "more":[{"text":"Many of the indexes have longer names: For example, when you hear about the Dow, people are talking about the Dow Jones Industrial Average (this measures 30 stocks that trade on the New York Stock Exchange, not to be confused with the Dow Jones Transportation Average, which tracks stocks of 20 transportation companies on the same exchange.) The Dow was created more than a century ago by the co-founder of Dow Jones and the first editor of the Wall Street Journal, Charles Dow

Because it tracks so few companies and is price-weighted (giving the highest-priced stocks more influence over the index\u2019s value) the Dow is sometimes criticized for not accurately representing market activity

(It is still closely watched, however.) More modern indexes like the TSX Composite Index (which measures 300 stocks on the Toronto Stock Exchange) are usually \u201cmarket-weighted\u201d instead of price-weighted, meaning that they track stocks with the biggest market capitalization (that\u2019s the value of all of a company\u2019s shares, rather than the price of an individual share) on a given exchange

Many people see that as a broader picture of the market, but even a market-weighted index does not track the performance of thousands of smaller companies\u2019 stocks \u2013 so it\u2019s not a complete picture, even if it\u2019s a more reliable one."}], "refVal":"dow_index"},"F3HEUENLKZAABOROUOZLEDIF3I":{"title":"What is price fixing?","time":"30","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"Prices change all the time, based on the cost of making a product, what competitors are doing, and other factors

What\u2019s the difference between price fixing (which is illegal) and simply changing prices in a competitive way? It\u2019s an agreement between competitors: if two or more competing businesses agree together not to undercut each other on prices, then they can all charge higher prices and make more money

That\u2019s anticompetitive behavior

Competitors are allowed to talk to each other, but not to conspire to do things like raise prices artificially, or to restrict the supply of a product so that consumers have less choice and less buying power

", "more":[{"text":"Competition is good for consumers because they always have the option to take their business elsewhere: that helps to keep prices from rising more than the market will bear

Anti-competitive behavior like price fixing creates something that looks more like a monopoly: consumers can choose to take their business elsewhere but it\u2019s a false choice because competition that keeps prices reasonable has been eliminated

It can be hard to prove anti-competitive behavior like price fixing, because it usually involves secret agreements \u2013 most often these come to light because a whistleblower tips off authorities, (in Canada, that\u2019s the Competition Bureau,) triggering an investigation."}], "refVal":"price_fixing"},"763ML5B56BHJ7IAHII2CMSCXZU":{"time":"60","title":"Need some background on the FARC and their peace deal with the Colombian government? ","text":"For more than 50 years, \x3cstrong\x3eFARC\x3c/strong\x3e were the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, a guerrilla army

Now, the organization has rebranded itself as a Marxist political party, the Common Alternative Revolutionary Force (still FARC, in the Spanish acronym).\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \n\nThe FARC fought a \x3cstrong\x3e52-year war\x3c/strong\x3e against the Colombian government

More than 220,000 people died in that conflict, the vast majority of them civilians, and millions of people were displaced

The FARC was infamous for its forced recruitment of child soldiers, kidnappings, use of landmines, and for funding its guerrilla force with narco-trafficking.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nThe \x3cstrong\x3eoriginal cause of the conflict\x3c/strong\x3e was wealth disparity: A small elite long controlled the Colombian state and much of its land, while the majority of citizens felt the government did not represent them

In the late \u201850s, after a decade-long civil war ended in Colombia, some peasant farmers began organizing into communities under a Communist movement

When government troops attacked them in 1964, they formed a guerrilla force that became the FARC.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nAfter many failed attempts to make peace over the decades, the government and the FARC signed a \x3cstrong\x3epeace agreement\x3c/strong\x3e in 2016

The deal was controversial and divided Colombians

", "refVal":"FARC","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the FARC and their peace deal with the Colombian government? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","more":[{"text":"Many FARC fighters grew up as poor subsistence farmers, and were from the marginalized Indigenous and Afro-Colombian communities

"},{"text":"The FARC was forced to the negotiating table after a harsh military offensive greatly diminished its forces

The negotiations for the \x3cstrong\x3epeace deal\x3c/strong\x3e mostly happened in Cuba \u2013 which is why it is often referred to as the Havana Accord

"}, {"text":"While most Colombians wanted the war to end, they were \x3cstrong\x3esharply divided\x3c/strong\x3e over the contents of the deal, particularly that FARC leaders would not be jailed

Many citizens also did not trust the FARC to honour its commitments, which included handing over its weapons, doing reparations work such as road construction, and sending commanders before a special court

If commanders testified truthfully, their punishment would be restricted movement and reparations work such as clearing land mines

The government committed to reforming rural land distribution and investing in social services and infrastructure in former FARC-controlled areas, the poorest in the country

The deal also guaranteed the FARC seats in Congress for two electoral terms

After an elaborate signing ceremony with Colombian president Juan Manuel Santos and supreme FARC commander Rodrigo (Timochenko) Londono in September 2016, the deal was rejected a few days later in a national referendum

New talks were hastily held, and a modified deal was passed into law by the Congress without a second referendum

"}, {"text":"While the peace accord was approved in a series of high court cases, there continues to be a push within Colombia to reopen it and make requirements on the FARC more severe

In its first electoral showing in March 2018, the FARC performed dismally, garnering less than 0.5 per cent of the vote in both the house and senate."}]},"ZF727GGOYJFXHFLGUD4FLG267M":{"time":"50","title":"What is the Gaza Strip, and what is its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe Gaza Strip\x3c/strong\x3e is a sliver of land between Israel, Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea that is home to almost two million people who live in extreme poverty

Unlike the West Bank, which is governed by an organization, Fatah, that has engaged in talks with Israel over the years, Gaza is controlled by Hamas, which does not recognize Israel\u2019s right to exist

Hamas\u2019 fight against Israel has included orchestrating suicide bombings there and firing rockets from Gaza into Israel.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \n\nAlthough Israel withdrew its soldiers and settlers from Gaza in 2005, it maintains a \x3cstrong\x3eblockade\x3c/strong\x3e that restricts the flow of commercial goods into Gaza \u2013 with the avowed purpose of limiting Hamas\u2019s access to materials it could use to build weapons

However, the blockade has also affected Gaza residents\u2019 access to food, clean water, medicine, electricity and fuel

Trade and travel across the border with Egypt is also highly restricted

The conditions in Gaza have sparked protests and violence along the border with Israel, and have raised humanitarian concerns.\n", "refVal":"Gaza_only","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the Gaza Strip, and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","more":[{"text":"The long-standing crisis dates back to the end of British administration over what was then called \x3cstrong\x3ePalestine\x3c/strong\x3e

In 1947, the United Nations proposed dividing Palestine into three territories: a Jewish state and an Arab state, plus special status that placed an area encompassing the holy cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem under international administration

Jews had already been moving into the area for decades in what they saw as a bid for a homeland (the ideology that drove this is known as Zionism), but which Palestinians saw as an effort to displace them

The West Bank and the Gaza Strip were both part of a larger area set aside for the Arab state under the UN plan

Palestinians fought back against that plan, as did surrounding Arab nations, leading to a 1948 war that began as soon as the State of Israel was declared."}, {"text":"By the end of that war, Israeli forces had claimed more land than was envisioned by the UN plan, and hundreds of thousands of Palestinians had been forced from their homes

Many fled to neighbouring Arab states

Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip, while Jordan held what is now known as the West Bank

Both of those areas were seized by Israel following the second Arab-Israeli War, in 1967

Together, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip are home to more than four million Palestinians in total."}]}, "WLPUYH2PGFD5NNBLGL5ZDAEX5Q":{"ref":"MMIW","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"4B3CGU34Q5BO5IT3YDLZ7QK4W4":{"ref":"5G","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"F6ZUCZNPKJBAZJYSJYANJKPMPM":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"Z323V62BHZHRJIXLDCTBGVVGAI":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"N4V2VN2ASJGNPEMGYZULUWE6R4":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"JN7YDP4B4JHLTKDOTNULLEKUQ4":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"}, "DMCTE7J7X5HKNEQVZFEM4OBBCY":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)"},"IZMYUQ7R5ZHOPPFC7PTWZ3EY6E":{"ref":"SpecialCounsel","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"SMBNDKV32ZF3XEAQ3EJ2FD66Q4":{"ref":"SpecialCounsel","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"7DXBTBNQANDKZCZ2VQ5E2RM5AU":{"ref":"vaping2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"UYLCZ3RSINFGLIONNZCUX2Y34E":{"ref":"vaping2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"EX37VNENUBEXTJPEWGJPYR4IFM":{"ref":"transmountain2", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"WRSXCISOSNGG7EGWJUKSNRRI2U":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"CWYXUBBDZ5DYBCQI2PIUKESVJE":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"2EWYXQIZKVBZDM2IIAV4X3RCII":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"CW42KCWTIFEQJAW4VF4JLMT6RU":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"Z2AM5HXNHVAWLMUTDSIWTDBZL4":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"}, "BNN3SVC3S5C67LX2NKKYSKZZUI":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)"},"LYB4L6DU3VB6BFXCJ3LRTSS52U":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"AEYH6LMS6FCKFL4MBSTHF3J7EM":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"2E54K3HCV5ECDM27TITIPFJTTE":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"EDYKVNKNCRHM3BVZKHHCQCTIXU":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"5H3GAZTWT5E5XHFMLLEJWNQZUI":{"ref":"transmountain2", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"7XYMTKCYUZEXXBCYWU3CF7NZQU":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"CLVRWMX4UVEYRP7KTHYQTYUIRA":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"7DMTBG2RJ5AH3CJVXSEF3SXKB4":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)"},"3C3L5GVWGREZ5E4R45IEIEC7A4":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"SJFHGNQ6WFC5XEECSL35MCNN74":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(22)"}, "7M6P5TVIZFH4FNFOJYTBNLS5JI":{"ref":"cryptocurrency","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"NOPCYXDYXRHADMN2QMNPEVZDMA":{"ref":"cryptocurrency","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"FVXHM7NJONE5DFBGBG7RVNW4QM":{"ref":"MarketIndex","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)"},"NOTIR3CYQ5BAFPJXJ4KDWB4DW4":{"ref":"supply","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(16)"},"ETPJP5FM5BHSFC6PBGDYAKPRNM":{"ref":"supply","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"XNG5DZKHHRBHFB6BGS5QDWPMMQ":{"ref":"Russia", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)"},"4WW7GYDGCJFEDNFWNCMWSW7Y7Q":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"CSH6JCQX7ZEKBN24WXI6ARPOY4":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"CW3HLJ3KLFDUJFO3LIQ3EK4BME":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"3XFFSJIFFBEHDNW7DW56DVCRZE":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"PKGJG5NJ2ZGOHHBU7JHJMT2A5Q":{"ref":"asylum","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"}, "DQSESLUVVBH5TPDAGADRP6OCXA":{"ref":"asylum","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"ECH4CFPYWNGCXKARSNBISCVEDA":{"ref":"asylum","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"PDGHGJ47LFFDXMKYVVQWKTMDDY":{"ref":"asylum","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"7BT2YBNZF5HTPJUJ3DNR7LI4DY":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"6YSS2XWV3JEKPLU54GSM5ORJPE":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"MLBZS2QNT5HILN5QOQT6IEEETA":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"}, "QFUQRGWNRREYDAYRN362MW5QZY":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"K6SMXC5IJZCP7H4UFUKIJOWU3A":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"XDUZ5ASYOVHZXCQ5F3WAHX4OJ4":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"4HKO6HQTAVFT7O35BGZFYXAUX4":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"IMG7KKCVVVFRFMEKG3SI73F3T4":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"VKGGVANKO5BPLO5FHUVLAMZKJA":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(1)"}, "ULREA2PXGJFQZNSCWFL5IKFYO4":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)"},"XVP6W3ED2NCZHP6QCM3SAD7OJY":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"43TLY43XD5GRPK5D6MCOHKP3CQ":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)"},"PSZWLJKSVNC6FDMGGXWQ45KA3U":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"HLYGFTN7ANDS7JZWM2BKIQB2CA":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"VPUFXRVCTRHKRMDWI763MNNBVQ":{"ref":"tariff", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"FLHED2LNFNFV7JBVHG53WHBJGQ":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)"},"3WDQDIYWMRB3XBOVVJ3PHPC64M":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"OP5Z3XXFBFHBXMQSZOBQRTNJPI":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"KCJWA4F3BNHXJARQTS4YOFXHIA":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"ZTJV3LRNCBEMNG6JGHYCNMEGQU":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)"}, "22LSVX2CUBFI3HAUSXCJ2D23YI":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(12)"},"V47Y2Y6LBJG3BLUXMVKNBEHCLM":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"GLIFSQBA7NDKLG2M2QDLNFTZ7U":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"NBLWWMQPG5HVLDNOHOFLBFNANE":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"735CLBNSXBCRDMX66PZJCRKAPQ":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"GTPTVYK7CNDMRLVM5NQCKSIEEA":{"ref":"tariff", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"5E7GLRAWUZHZVICTN4ZIBCTILA":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"WC2ZO5KO5VDQLLEGYC3JJGG44E":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"WPEV7YVUNBB2RJTESAQJZ6PBWA":{"ref":"ai","title":"Need some background on AI, which is the underlying technology in devices like Alexa?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"IDQZ3JD3FNE77MKVGHCYU4OYNM":{"ref":"ai","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)"},"474ISGVATJE4VIXSP25R6AT4KM":{"ref":"ai", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)"},"PKTQCLME2ZCQ5MRTUIWF2DWU5I":{"ref":"ai","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)"},"Y53CU7VLVZFK7EOPJZTD7IA6ME":{"ref":"ai","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(12)"},"Q6J6C6TK5JFKRGSVKYHB55YFMQ":{"ref":"ai","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"NTKAP5XHLJHOTCYCY2GREDS3DY":{"ref":"ai","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)"},"I3PK6WMIQBCS7E4SCNCGG3NK44":{"ref":"ai","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"QU2F6B7A6BGG7GCCPEW5PUVXJA":{"ref":"ai", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"VKYUTQB4BJNHDETUGSELOGNM3M":{"ref":"ai","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(15)"},"NX3R5TKGABCFTHXG5TC5TQDVHY":{"ref":"WinePoints","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(34)"},"MZIFZ35CSFCPBAK7AK24VWVA4Q":{"ref":"WinePoints","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"56TQ347BKRGFPKXJKQKK6F2MFM":{"ref":"TimHortons","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)"},"LEBPL7WNHVAD7FZPOLMLWIDD44":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"}, "JUOCQ44PQNHV7ICN3KIQDY75DM":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"NZHPCFHHT5FULO7QJJLFVGNQ7M":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"WQ7WRNOROZELPHMQWZR3FCDMM4":{"title":"Need some quick background on NAFTA?","ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"O6DDTWU64BEONFWULR7YZABWZU":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"V3WBKUJQ3JGUBJJOKIU43UJEQY":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"QJOZG64R25FT3I7JMI5W7VOGTI":{"ref":"nafta", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"NSLTJJRZ3JDIPBDJSH6XFHWXJ4":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)"},"IEJ4O4KCE5FFVMK5U4ZQHUYSMA":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"I2NCRHK3YRDQFEIORR3PF6GQIM":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"TFDHMAYC2ZALDEHIDXSV6AMQQI":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"4S3AVZ3R5VEOVOXMVOSY2SCRFM":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"NJCZFCOVWJGZRKHE6RGZKBVXIA":{"ref":"nafta", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)"},"ATS7NZEBFNF3XJPVS7VJJ2FIXU":{"ref":"GDPR","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"ITBBKUFZINCRNG7CQ4RYA4Q7BU":{"ref":"transmountain","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"DG7E5EDZCVCSFO2XITRQNOJS5M":{"ref":"transmountain","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"SP45OBS6Z5EJXFP3HQ2ZWOBNGE":{"ref":"transmountain","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"4LRVBETFIFHDJEVTFZEFLK2G64":{"ref":"transmountain","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"}, "U6OYTHHJOFHFNFGZBLJQAYQQRI":{"ref":"transmountain","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"C6EP4D2W4BBY3OKMDIPJCRZXXQ":{"ref":"transmountain","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"QNHXGXYDHZEAZHXCHDI6NQ32OE":{"ref":"transmountain","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"KKJEUPSVYFEH3F7DAD6FRVMKFQ":{"ref":"transmountain","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"FHJVGRI4CBFIZORSX7EIFZE3PQ":{"ref":"transmountain","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"4OTVROZ7XVC2BCO4BL5Z44KSOU":{"ref":"transmountain", "title":"Need a quick catch-up on Kinder Morgan's pipeline plan?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"BLF5KPTUK5DOXJFP67KBQAGWBE":{"ref":"sources","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(16)"},"LWBJWZLW2ZDV5LIQ2WSBJIRIP4":{"ref":"sources","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"ZJEQ6RO735AAFIKU347DNVVFZE":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"MZPTMY7J4NFMHBMONC74SFMJKA":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"RP5S6LJFRFCG7OPD2CUFOJ2ZCE":{"ref":"tariff", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"JWF5NFORGJDK5G6M7QXGFLIGOQ":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"LFL7Z5JL35DPDAQXUBXTFRMTWU":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"QXVE62TMQRHXDFO2ST7TT2JBIA":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"DS3UNYRRAND47DZVSBAO3RHHQM":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)"},"GELPQTNWZJHN5CAXG5PMBEV7FQ":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"}, "LQKT7456ZNDUJJZX6QZQKSFERI":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"HO2OSTSDWBERTP44CCLHMBEYCU":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"ULE3CSJVAVA6LNXT2CWGBVDQTY":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"H4PXY6KUZFB2FLBHEFTIWYVGV4":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"UFSCQAHGZVFULICAUGMFWDRAN4":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"YU64K2DVJBGMHHDOYTPTCZPNMY":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)"}, "XIWNNSCNDZDZVP72N6XBH2CKYQ":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(19)"},"6UK2G3RXCJF2FEZW6BBOHBTKE4":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(14)"},"VWR2JQY5ERBKDDBDPEWGEQQTJE":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(18)"},"INYI2SRDORFMJM27ZW3REUB424":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)"},"MB37FTDG7FAW3GYFF4NDVM7VZY":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(18)"},"FRLYYS6LVNBB5NLYZTBWW5MDJM":{"ref":"nafta","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(16)"}, "7VU47EHHXNDJ7IZKANVVEBEJGQ":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)"},"ZA32ALYVTRD7RM44NO7NIXGCUI":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"IBSWGY2MHJBXPCSDPHMUOAYTFA":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"LGHMR5M7MNATHG4MAI64CTNTZU":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"UB4Y4POYERG2XDMREUQA676XII":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"2GWYLTZJUZDCBBRL3JFQ6PCREE":{"ref":"transmountain2", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"3D6P6ZQI6RBCRE5EUJMPG43SBQ":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"OEUZ7HTCFFD5BMA77ZAUQ6AQ5M":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"7ABYFNH3WNGJPM7V4AFVIEFLU4":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text"},"UNSE4MCI4RCYHN2YOO3ECFBRFY":{"ref":"supply","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)"},"6YKND7OTF5C5HKWPHHX73ITZVU":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(23)"}, "QZKU4ZI65VB4JAP7L26M365Z5Y":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)"},"6R3AG4QAIBFXTMLSZSKZERGYYA":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"25RXJ322RJDBNP4L6QQVA4CPXU":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"WC5LJC6XAJF3TDBNJALKE6FTKU":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)"},"TLEHRIXVGVE25K4RWIVMC4O3KQ":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)"},"KFL7JFG5XRAFRONWKOSZ4UYGTM":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)"}, "AKZWJXF2QZCWNKBIBVGP54SEBI":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(17)"},"JZ7JYMBFEFEILIMGYIVL6M5YNE":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"L62VTHKYQNCBZHAJVT2H3T2HU4":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"TO5POKCSRFD55K7U5GKNGQFVWM":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)"},"TSSR6ZZWZVFQFMLHEUXW6PNOXE":{"ref":"sources","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"4OGID3YDIFGDLEY64FVJZDIUWE":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(19)"}, "GAO5Q6PYTFHULIE344FSCOYOKA":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"H4PJYVMUYBD53BDZLUWUTAYOIA":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(23)"},"ZGFFKK6UYNGHJC6TGM7E7ZG7Z4":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"OCQID4ATH5BMTLELF476OTHLXM":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"OXVZCNFIYFGXTMOGHTRVYUK3HE":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"4UNMUFH36VC4PM753HCCT7HNPE":{"ref":"ai","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"}, "6RPQPONS2JAHXEIMEV22RO6HOU":{"ref":"asylum","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"NGB3JR2FBRFSVOKAACZ4X3SKZU":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the conflict in Syria?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"Syria"},"TONKFVQAJVDPTD4DN2NINURKHE":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"G7"},"REDJ6IGVPFAHLCRIC6B7LGQ4R4":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"SpecialCounsel"}, "RVY2CVA425F4JFRR44SGFPFFBA":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"asylum"},"GRIF2IP66VHITG4T7ZSMT5BHMI":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"G7"},"Q6LLZEZK2VHJFA2YH6O5FVTSEU":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"tariff"},"L2VIN4SXLNBMLBUHN4SKXN5RQU":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)", "ref":"G7"},"BAB6MFHDQJFOTJWXJI2DKSNX6E":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"G7"},"X3GJUYB2UZDDJFTJB6SAIKVJXI":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"G7"},"QTGN7B3HN5EC3I33U3A4KQXE5Q":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)","ref":"G7"},"7APRYBAK55F4HKGGODMPFAGU7I":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"VR3H4Y63CZDUXG53372NX7KJ6U":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"G7"},"4HBME7OJWBHHBIFH6KKJ32IGKI":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(15)","ref":"transmountain2"},"OQ7XNBSQTFCN7HUM44YVKS4J4U":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"}, "IFSDNR57ZJFKTMO4KE4I3IPIKU":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"G7"},"ZIMHDBIJ3FDD3DSVF56CFJ24CI":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"nafta"},"PXRTZI7USNFLXILJSZZHC2INTU":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)","ref":"tariff"},"4OEZEYIH5VCCHNXWTRTX2MMI5U":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the G7?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"G7"},"Q7356FD7UNDJXIBCUR5KMLSBNA":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"TimHortons"},"LSIKY2DYD5DJVCQY622IM7B6SE":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"G7"},"WGYULNOOTFEWNHDDAVP52IY5DQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)", "ref":"nafta"},"5I64A6DAFBEUVMTMPMDFZK35AQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(16)","ref":"transmountain2"},"I3OWLYE6RNBADKLXQDW6EZHK3A":{"title":"What exactly is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"tariff"},"PXD3CF73NNDZJI4EPHXJY26F3A":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence? Is it different from machine learning?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence and machine learning?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"ai"},"3F3MYPZ6ZFDWFISDFPANAR4RIU":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"nafta"},"M72CN5KKVVEQDC4VQDC5DHACP4":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and what is bitcoin, and how does it work?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrency, bitcoin, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"cryptocurrency"},"ZNVRKVDJF5GV3AR7OSOBHEZKOU":{"title":"", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"GQJ22SBZFJFAPKONJPDZKGBPUI":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and what is bitcoin and how does it work?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrency and bitcoin, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"cryptocurrency"},"O3IH2XSRQBEFRMRWQ22B7YHEUI":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrency and how it works?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"crypto_old"},"JYQRVXFVHBBK3NZQEYTJO3SOHY":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Russia investigation?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(19)","ref":"Russia"},"O5IN4KZI3ZEDDO323KVC66IAOU":{"title":"","altTitle":"What is the Globe and Mail\u2019s policy on anonymous sources?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"sources"},"SY7ISW6ENVB65HEGHV3WLNTBDQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need some clarity on what vaping is and how it works?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"vaping2"},"PQTG6KN6ZJGHRHV7PHSI7WGOZQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"EF5HYFWV5VFXZMROA3P3MB2YMU":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Canada\u2019s \u201csupply management\u201d system?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"supply"},"LY453W5XABABFJGLDALMFIWLP4":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"transmountain2"},"NGAONPGFINH5XJG65FCGW7YX5M":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"tariff"},"HMLNH6IWLZHOTJ64ZJGSWDWTJY":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(18)","ref":"MMIW"},"TDS3HI4AKBF4VFBSMN3EB5TWVE":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"tariff"},"DFIVMKGNNVFUDJDWAKYIEBQN2M":{"title":"", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Canada's supply management system?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(12)","ref":"supply"},"NRIHHEZ5ERBE3PBG3NGUCEKBKE":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on AI and machine learning?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"ai"},"P4TSNZW5UJHJFJ3MOQBGIGDZO4":{"title":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrency and how it works?","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)","ref":"crypto_old"},"LZOHO2CF6BAD5E4BW7I6UKAJSA":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on tariffs?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"OMJUUEZ6JBE5XFVLYKNXD2VZXA":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and what is Bitcoin and how does it work?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"crypto_old"},"4S33NH5CBVAHJK6QAEHSGXLX3I":{"title":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)","ref":"FARC"},"QJSCO2HJPJAB5HOIO736XANQT4":{"title":"", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on supply management?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","ref":"supply"},"6X5RXXJHWNGO5GAQKNTHTJBJ5U":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(17)","ref":"tariff"},"WG72M3AQ7NCDZAAWJI6LMEMKLI":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Russia investigation?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"Russia"},"QZ36W5HT5VHKRC43VGZ3JTZS6M":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"nafta"},"PL2KUIMDDRH7TP42LRT3XTFTMI":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)","ref":"tariff"},"OL32CXTOYVB43JMNGXOGGSPMIU":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"nafta"},"OZXHZJRRI5C3TL7GM7LED4AYTQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on AI and machine learning?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)", "ref":"ai"},"LBTZUYLRU5EZ7OHX2RMMAVZKBQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)","ref":"nafta"},"KY6APNXCEVHHXFC5VEW6TYS7J4":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"tariff"},"ACPQLUFURVEGZMVBQLVB4ROBFM":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"WXMS67AVWZCXJJME4ZXAHEGD6Y":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(14)","ref":"tariff"},"MOEYTRJTXJDZ5H4FK5HKAYEJ6Q":{"title":"Need some background on the Kinder Morgan pipeline?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Kinder Morgan pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"transmountain2"},"TZ5CBLLRDFFBHPULSKF6YSH4BQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"What is the Globe's policy on anonymous sources?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"sources"},"2CXUJVXTYZHJLDXFPAGQXI2AQI":{"title":"", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Russia investigation?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"Russia"},"LQXPC74TORHZXHTRBV7CVHQMOE":{"title":"What are cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin, and how do they work?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"crypto_old"},"DXL2TH3RSNC25D6KBGLHWDVAB4":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)", "ref":"nafta"},"RLA3TEY5URCKBEEZVDSLUG7G4U":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"FNRTFJYGIFD2TKJA2EHBRKMAIY":{"altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"nafta"},"3MUN5WPSWVG5FL66NMACSPKPRE":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"tariff"},"XDMXYWKNQZEHBKIVD3JJ76N3DA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)", "ref":"tariff"},"IUAOM57N2RDCDGKLHHVIF4DMDY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"tariff"},"4A3USXWJWBEQ7D3LUW6ZSZQWM4":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","ref":"crypto_old"},"JE7OJLDGFBHPPODMXB7LVPJX7E":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"nafta"},"XXIFKHHGZZCVFFUM3IEYHUCARA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"tariff"},"JA7I3D6CXNDOLLRNID2PQRD5QI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"tariff"},"CNRTPJZYDRE3XORYPLOEYFJINQ":{"altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"ai"},"BGSKGX5H3BFTLFUPP2YTMUEVQM":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(24)","ref":"nafta"},"QXDQAYA3KFCRTDKIVPA5PKLL3Q":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)", "ref":"supply"},"Z2CBNIXBLNGU3JSXG2F54YLXPY":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"Russia"},"SBCM2J6GRFC7FHIMDG3ROO26A4":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"cryptocurrency"},"D42ED7OTCVFHHJRTOJPWTSDW3A":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"NFV4UNJMTBH4LLLGPVFPGGZCYU":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"supply"},"6UGOKZPV5FFPFLSLTDKA2BHB6Y":{"title":"", "altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"supply"},"ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp1":{"time":"25","title":"Need a quick refresher on the Management Expense Ratio (MER)?","text":"MERs are the definitive measure of how much it costs to own a mutual fund

MERs combine the various costs of running a fund \u2013 things like administration, fees for managers and taxes \u2013 and express them as a percentage of the assets in a fund

Fund companies take the fees represented in the MER off the top of fund returns

When you see published returns for a mutual fund, they already reflect the impact of the MER

MERs are charged whether a fund makes or loses money.", "refVal":"ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp1_ref","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(29)"},"ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp2":{"time":"25","title":"Need a quick refresher on how fund-of-fund products work?","text":"Typical mutual funds invest in a selection of stocks, bonds and other securities

Fund-of-fund products, on the other hand, are a popular type of mutual fund that hold other mutual funds

Fund companies typically call their fund-of-fund products \u201cportfolios,\u201d to get across the idea that they hold a variety of different types of funds and provide instant diversification

The MER for fund-of-funds includes the fees of the underlying funds, typically with a small fee premium to cover the cost of managing the portfolio.", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(38)"},"ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp3":{"time":"45","title":"Need a quick catch-up on ETFs?","text":"ETFs began life as a way for investors to buy the returns of popular stock and bond indexes, while paying a much smaller fee than mutual funds charge

Today, traditional index-tracking funds compete with ETFs that use a screening process to find stocks or bonds with particular features (related to price, yield and more) or a human manager who picks what to buy and sell

ETFs are bought and sold like stocks, which means you need a brokerage account to invest in them

You\u2019ll pay commissions of $5 to $10 at an online brokerage firm, although some firms may allow at least a degree of commission-free trading

A growing number of investment advisers are using ETFs as well

They charge an advice fee of something like 1 to 1.5 per cent \u2013 the modest cost of your ETFs would be on top of that.", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(21)","more":[{"text":"On the surface, underperformance by Top 100 funds validates criticism of mutual funds that they chronically lag indexes you can invest in directly at low cost using ETFs

But putting mutual fund and ETF returns side by side is an unfair comparison

Most mutual fund fees include a \u201ctrailing commission,\u201d which goes to advisers and dealers who sell funds to cover ongoing service to clients

A mutual fund investing in stocks would typically have a trailing commission equal to 1 percentage point built into its fee, while bond fund would be at 0.5 per cent

ETFs typically have no trailing commissions."}]}, "ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA":{"query":["ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp3","ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp1","ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp2"]},"CHQIKZUQYBD37OHOX4EJL5NBQI":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"tariff"},"6DCXP3LLC5EKJPZHVEP4SBLVZ4":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence and machine learning?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"ai_old"},"IC633IBBZJGBZORFW2RMK3YFUQ":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)", "ref":"transmountain2"},"4IOZWTEQKZCDZBAOQBK4FJKHUU":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"nafta"},"G5TVBQ2V7VEVFGVSZNMZ7T5LR4":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(17)","ref":"crypto_old"},"N2QHSJI2INDOHFJUWIIFVY2N2E":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"ZQRSAU2BRNFQ7F3NECGX3KW7HY":{"refVal":"westbankgaza", "time":"70","title":"Need a catch-up on the significance of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the significance of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip?","text":"The West Bank and the Gaza Strip are both areas under Israeli control that are home to more than four million Palestinians in total.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nThe long-standing crisis dates back to the end of British administration over what was then called Palestine

In 1947, the United Nations proposed dividing Palestine into three territories: a Jewish state and an Arab state, plus special status that placed an area encompassing the holy cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem under international administration

Jews had already been moving into the area for decades in what they saw as a bid for a homeland (the ideology that drove this is known as Zionism), but which Palestinians saw as an effort to displace them

The West Bank and the Gaza Strip were both part of a larger area set aside for the Arab state under the UN plan

Palestinians fought back against that plan, as did surrounding Arab nations, leading to a 1948 war that began as soon as the State of Israel was declared.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nBy the end of that war, Israeli forces had claimed more land than was envisioned by the UN plan, and hundreds of thousands of Palestinians had been forced from their homes

Many fled to neighbouring Arab states

Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip, while Jordan held what is now known as the West Bank

Both of those areas were seized by Israel following the second Arab-Israeli War, in 1967.\n", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(23)","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe West Bank\x3c/strong\x3e is a large area on Israel\u2019s eastern border with Jordan that is home to some 2.8-million Palestinians

It has been under Israeli occupation since 1967

While parts of the West Bank are run semi-independently by the Palestinian Authority, Israel has set up walls and military checkpoints that make it difficult for Palestinians to travel even within the territory

The West Bank is also home to more than 400,000 Israelis, living in more than 130 settlements that are considered illegal under international law

A \u201ctwo-state solution\u201d in the peace process would create a Palestinian state spanning at least part of the West Bank \u2013 which includes sites such as Hebron that are considered holy by both Jews and Muslims \u2013 as well as East Jerusalem, which Palestinians claim as their future capital and is also home to 200,000 Israelis

(The peace process has been effectively stalled since 2014.)"}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe Gaza Strip\x3c/strong\x3e is a sliver of land between Israel, Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea that is home to almost two million people who live in extreme poverty

Unlike the West Bank, which is governed by an organization, Fatah, that has engaged in talks with Israel over the years, Gaza is controlled by Hamas, which does not recognize Israel\u2019s right to exist

Hamas\u2019 fight against Israel has included orchestrating suicide bombings there and firing rockets from Gaza into Israel

Although Israel withdrew its soldiers and settlers from Gaza in 2005, it maintains a blockade that restricts the flow of commercial goods into Gaza \u2013 with the avowed purpose of limiting Hamas\u2019s access to materials it could use to build weapons

However, the blockade has also affected Gaza residents\u2019 access to food, clean water, medicine, electricity and fuel

Trade and travel across the border with Egypt is also highly restricted

The conditions in Gaza have sparked protests and violence along the border with Israel, and have raised humanitarian concerns."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eDoes the Golan have anything to do with this?\x3c/strong\x3e The Golan Heights forms Israel\u2019s land border with Syria

Unlike Gaza and the West Bank, the Golan is not central to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict; rather, it is about military strategy and agriculture

Though the Golan is internationally recognized as part of Syria, it has been under Israeli occupation since 1967

Many residents there are Druze \u2013 an offshoot of Shia Islam \u2013 and consider themselves to be Syrians

The Golan is strategically valuable as a vantage point over the surrounding areas

It is also an important source of water in the region."}]}, "CRJ24VXR7VAYHHJ2QVGONQ2I7A":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"MWNJJTHEYNBKFAIPVWHGCY2APE":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"nafta"},"V2AMQF7HZZDB7ODMYHECKUORKM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"QZ6GZV3B3ZEJJH3NP3KJOEIQ7M":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)", "ref":"transmountain2"},"EHFICUXGGFARZLQAN62UFZNRBU":{"refVal":"Zumacorruption_old","time":"25","title":"What are the corruption allegations against Zuma? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the corruption allegations against Zuma?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(20)","text":"Evidence of corruption has dogged former South African president Jacob Zuma for years.\x3cbr/\x3e\x3cbr/\x3eIn 2005, Mr

Zuma\u2019s long-time friend, businessman Schabir Shaik, was sent to prison for soliciting bribes and other payments from an arms contractor on Mr

Zuma\u2019s behalf

The payments were connected to a 1999 government weapons deal worth billions of dollars

A company founded by Mr

Shaik also won a piece of that same deal

Corruption charges were filed against Mr

Zuma in 2005 as well, but within a few years he had them dropped

Those charges were reinstated in 2016

They are the subject of the current trial.", "more":[{"text":"This isn\u2019t the only time he\u2019s been caught up with the law

In 2016, a court found Mr

Zuma had used state funds to pay for upgrades at his village home, including a swimming pool and amphitheatre

He agreed to pay back more than $20-million."},{"text":"During his presidency, Mr

Zuma\u2019s family became close to the Gupta family \u2013 three brothers from India who allegedly used political connections to build a business empire in South Africa

Mr

Zuma\u2019s son, Duduzane, was appointed a director of many Gupta-owned companies

Investigations by South African officials have found that the Guptas wielded influence over the Zuma government, including in cabinet appointments

Both Mr

Zuma and the Guptas have denied this."}]}, "K6H46QSENZFPLHJ6SIBRCRGBUE":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence and machine learning?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(18)","ref":"ai_old"},"OU67FSZX35BT5CUDEARDLX6DHE":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(19)","ref":"G7"},"I2BOLDV46ZH57K4JHWNW5XWHHI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"VZ6ZBV54OND3VGYRGQLP3UVRWA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Russia investigation?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"Russia"},"FUM6BURLAVDETJNLACJ4OGQWMQ":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"FARC"},"BDMUGLB6WFDCLFXZFUGJ6TGYYQ":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)","ref":"FARC"},"DRTNFKVIR5F7THCXLY25YRQRD4":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"Gaza_only"},"PLB53I53IBDQPAHRR5J25XYVIQ":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"transmountain2"},"4IASCGA3KBEUBLTRAACMX7VQQY":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)", "ref":"CapAndTrade"},"6T2UICTRCBBSJP32FKGY34QPLQ":{"time":"45","title":"What is the West Bank and what is its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict? ","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe West Bank\x3c/strong\x3e is a large area on Israel\u2019s eastern border with Jordan that is home to some 2.8-million Palestinians

It has been under Israeli occupation since 1967

While parts of the West Bank are run semi-independently by the Palestinian Authority, Israel has set up walls and military checkpoints that make it difficult for Palestinians to travel even within the territory

The West Bank is also home to more than 400,000 Israelis, living in more than 130 settlements that are considered illegal under international law

A \u201ctwo-state solution\u201d in the peace process would create a Palestinian state spanning at least part of the West Bank \u2013 which includes sites such as Hebron that are considered holy by both Jews and Muslims \u2013 as well as East Jerusalem, which Palestinians claim as their future capital and is also home to 200,000 Israelis

(The peace process has been effectively stalled since 2014.)", "refVal":"westbank_only","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the West Bank and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","more":[{"text":"The long-standing Israeli-Palestinian conflict dates back to the end of British administration over what was then called Palestine

In 1947, the United Nations proposed dividing Palestine into three territories: a Jewish state and an Arab state, plus special status that placed an area encompassing the holy cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem under international administration

Jews had already been moving into the area for decades in what they saw as a bid for a homeland (the ideology that drove this is known as Zionism), but which Palestinians saw as an effort to displace them

The West Bank and the Gaza Strip were both part of a larger area set aside for the Arab state under the UN plan

Palestinians fought back against that plan, as did surrounding Arab nations, leading to a 1948 war that began as soon as the State of Israel was declared."}, {"text":"By the end of that war, Israeli forces had claimed more land than was envisioned by the UN plan, and hundreds of thousands of Palestinians had been forced from their homes

Many fled to neighbouring Arab states

Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip, while Jordan held what is now known as the West Bank

Both of those areas were seized by Israel following the second Arab-Israeli War, in 1967

Together, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip are home to more than four-million Palestinians

"}]},"ODOTVABTP5C7NIWKZDMMNQXUUY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence and machine learning?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"ai_old"},"F4LEMYQNVZGRRAG6X73KULABGA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on food security?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"FoodSecurity"},"RQ7VPRQ66NFVNFVXBFMTIHXULM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"nafta"},"M7WPPMEF3ZHLZODQUDWRLNE4YI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on vaping and how it works?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"vaping2"}, "MNZGQE4NA5GC3FGKFWY3LQHJGM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G/","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"5G"},"ESDBBF3NUBEG3F6BXADBPDI7BY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"5G"},"SDST5PBJ7BEAREZZOJSNN5ENAI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the conflict in Syria?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"Syria"},"6UMCPELB4BE5HOCNXAEZOBKL6I":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(15)","ref":"transmountain2"},"N3XIQGG7O5BCJMCZ6VBV43UXLM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on supply management?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"supply"},"IJGRUTVQ2RFENENEC7KQMUWVFA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"464MWIMARVGLXPYLU7HD5PK5SM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(29)","ref":"5G"},"MIHBSJCKMZC4DA4IXUKE3EMDOY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"TimHortons"},"BY65EKEHXNGUPCDUCSOISMIE64":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"crypto_old"},"UYPZS67INJFRBJAYRSZS44QVXI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"5G"},"FXBGBBBMMJG6JJQSYZINH2E4GM":{"altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"asylum"},"TVUQOQEOWZDSLKJNMXTSBZHQKM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"CVUNV2SEQJCYBMVUI2CGQVPDC4":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"transmountain2"},"FEEYM2HO6JADTIJW5HSSJYGVRI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","ref":"nafta"},"VYITFJPRY5FZHJ4LU2QRKM6LN4":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on what is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"asylum"},"Z75LDCGKDZEETMN3IMKTNYSBZY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(12)","ref":"tariff"},"TGPQSWPBL5DQREFJMNAAKPUUYM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on supply management?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(26)","ref":"supply"},"LDOM4DNGZ5DHHL3UCWVBAKQ4EQ":{"altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)","ref":"asylum"},"7JPZLADWVJE4JBN64JPCND64TA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"tariff"},"G3W44LM7DJG43EUF2DB43GKGOQ":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"crypto_old"},"DRWXCAZ2ZRDZDAMMHDD2IF2IFA":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"Gaza_only"},"7CYOBJGM6RHX3EYHIQX26DOPKA":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on Europe\u2019s new privacy laws?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"GDPR"},"4DTDELSCF5FHFFW2FKPVHBQXKY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"nafta"},"QIH76JLLYVGUVBESKGQ2JSUBBA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on blockchain technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(27)","ref":"blockchain"},"WP7TYJ7F45FEDO6WBJE453ULNI":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"GEH5YG2HOFFFLNZO56CQI4G34Y":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on why market indexes like the Dow matter?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(30)","ref":"dow_index"},"M45PLZQ4FNFA3DRG57EM6ATX64":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrency mining?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"CryptocurrencyMiner"},"VCSJZMO6XBFDRCE3D5RZIP4KDA":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"softwood"},"SQQGXHHGLVCCXGSAANROAPGBUQ":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on market indexes like the Dow and why they matter?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"dow_index"},"T5DRC2HYNFEHBOGKVPRYIOV2KQ":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"4RFRUNL2VNCQ3APBJPH3ZLW5QA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on supply management?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"supply"},"GAKGD2HNHBAYRMV5T6SX6TELME":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(26)","ref":"nafta"},"E7D7R45SDNDAVJHL5EDK4RY4VI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"nafta"},"VGX7WSNQABGUPA5O7NJKBEF5TU":{"title":"How is 5G changing wireless technology?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(22)", "ref":"5G"},"AQWGRTXTTVAMNNRP2ZXOK35BWM":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"softwood"},"NYM3FYEUEVFCJJJFEDH6DTNOGU":{"title":"What are the G7 countries?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(21)","ref":"G7"},"NQKM4ESBOJDORI54BQNP2IMS7Q":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"Gaza_only"},"ZEL4NW6BWJGINFFWWJE7J2OQLI":{"time":"45","title":"How does a carbon tax work? ","text":"A \x3cstrong\x3ecarbon tax\x3c/strong\x3e makes companies and consumers pay for every tonne of carbon burned \u2013 just like drivers pay by the litre to burn gas in their cars, but at a larger scale

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nA carbon tax is not the same thing as a \x3cstrong\x3ecap-and-trade\x3c/strong\x3e system, which sets a limit on the amount of carbon that companies are permitted to burn when operating in the territory where the system is in place

This system also offers the option for companies to buy the right to burn more than their quota, by purchasing permits (also known as carbon credits) from companies that burn less

By doing that, they exchange their right to emit greenhouse gases; that\u2019s the \u201ctrade\u201d part

The government also makes money on those permits, since it runs the auctions for them.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nBoth a carbon tax and cap-and-trade have the same goal: to give people a financial incentive to reduce emissions

They just go about it differently.\n", "refVal":"carbontax","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on carbon taxes? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(36)","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho does cap-and-trade in Canada?\x3c/strong\x3e Quebec has had a system in place since 2013, and later joined up with California so that credits could be traded between those territories

Ontario implemented its system last year, and committed to joining Quebec and California in future auctions

Ontario Premier Doug Ford has vowed to scrap this plan."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho has a carbon tax?\x3c/strong\x3e British Columbia, since 2008; and Alberta since 2017."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eCould there be more soon?\x3c/strong\x3e In 2018, the federal government announced legislation that would require every province to implement a carbon-pricing system by 2019

The move follows a commitment to greenhouse gas reduction targets that the Trudeau government signed at the Paris climate conference in 2015; since then it has faced resistance to a national carbon-pricing framework from some provinces, particularly Saskatchewan."}]}, "AH3KSEPSWVHD5KL63OFEPCHTAQ":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"XSY2OTUPBBCHHDODJ77ADHRI6E":{"time":"40","title":"What is Hamas? ","text":"Palestinian politics are dominated by two organizations: Hamas and Fatah

Both want an independent Palestinian state, and both have political support from significant numbers of Palestinians, though they have very different approaches to Israel

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eHamas\x3c/strong\x3e is a militant organization that is an offshoot of the international Muslim Brotherhood movement

Hamas does not recognize Israel\u2019s right to exist \u2013 and from its founding, has regularly called for the destruction of the Jewish state

It controls the Gaza Strip, a slice of land in the west of Israel along the Mediterranean Sea, which shares a small part of Israel\u2019s southwest border with Egypt

Hamas rocket attacks against Israel, and its history of orchestrating suicide bombings, provided a rationale for Israel to impose a blockade on Gaza that has decimated its economy and infrastructure, and restricted residents\u2019 access to food, electricity, fuel and other crucial supplies.\n", "refVal":"Hamas_only","altTitle":"Need a refresher on Hamas and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eFatah\x3c/strong\x3e is a secular movement that currently runs the government of the West Bank, in Israel\u2019s east, under Israeli occupation

While it also engaged in armed conflict with Israel in the 1960s \u2013 and still maintains an armed wing called the al-Aqsa Martyrs\u2019 Brigades \u2013 Fatah has been open to diplomatic negotiations with Israel."}]}, "ZEJYYOEN3VDZ5MEQZBAKEFNUXM":{"title":"What is the Globe and Mail's policy on anonymous sources?","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"majority requested anonymity, citing similar fears as Ms

Bruce and Ms

Reid.","ref":"sources"},"7U5YBONMZFAZ7MU25TXQEVXGFE":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on Canada's carbon pricing strategies?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Canada's carbon pricing strategies?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(16)","ref":"CapAndTrade"}, "AFWANPBIOJCLRCSMBJIFK5VVOA":{"refVal":"PLO_only","title":"What is the PLO?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the PLO and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","time":"35","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(20)","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)\x3c/strong\x3e\u202fis a national organization represents Palestinians at the United Nations, and takes part in peace talks with Israel when they occur

(The peace process has been effectively stalled since 2014.) The PLO encompasses many political parties, of which Fatah is the most dominant

Fatah leads a placeholder government that runs the West Bank under Israeli occupation

However, the militant organization Hamas \u2013 which controls the Gaza Strip under an Israeli blockade \u2013 does not recognize Israel\u2019s right to exist, and is not part of the PLO

Because of that, the PLO\u2019s role as a unified representative of the Palestinian people has been questioned \u2013 particularly since any peace deal would require an agreement with Hamas as well

", "more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe Palestinian Authority (PA)\x3c/strong\x3e is not the same thing as the PLO

The PA is essentially a placeholder government meant to run the Palestinian territories until a deal can be reached with Israel

It runs the West Bank under Israeli occupation, but does not run the Gaza Strip

Opponents criticize the government for cooperating with that occupation

Fatah, a secular movement, currently leads that government

While Fatah engaged in armed conflict with Israel in the 1960s \u2013 and still maintains an armed wing called the al-Aqsa Martyrs\u2019 Brigades \u2013 it has been open to diplomatic negotiations with Israel

The PA does not run the Gaza Strip \u2013 another Palestinian territory in a sliver of land in the west of Israel, which is under Israeli blockade

Gaza is controlled, rather, by Hamas, a militant organization that is an offshoot of the international Muslim Brotherhood movement

From its founding, Hamas has regularly called for the destruction of the Jewish state."}]}, "P7JIOLXBKFCA3LVFQFZ6SUZKIU":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"RWCD2J43ZNDIDCNKTCFEDLN54U":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"transmountain2"},"4PBCM7VULFBEHBBXCUYQCXFL5Y":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"tariff"},"GQ7DEREEN5CXPHSJQOTDEY7PXU":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)", "ref":"CapAndTrade"},"2OFAEUUPIZEB5KRUUZQLWHGVHY":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"TimHortons"},"RGUMK3Y56NAF3F2F5ROXMIHXFI":{"time":"35","title":"What makes a wine ros\u00e9?","text":"Grape juice is white, whether the grapes are white or red; a wine\u2019s \x3cstrong\x3epigment\x3c/strong\x3e comes from grape skins

Red wines get their colour by keeping the juice in contact with the skins throughout fermentation

To obtain the pink hue of ros\u00e9, winemakers leave red skins in contact with the juice for only a short period before removing them to complete fermentation

In rare cases \u2013 notably, some pink champagnes \u2013 a splash of red wine is added to white, but the practice is otherwise generally frowned upon

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nRos\u00e9, in a sense, is just light-coloured red wine

But from an enjoyment perspective, it\u2019s best to think of it as a white wine with some colour

Pink wines are designed to be chilled.", "refVal":"Wine_rose","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on how ros\u00e9 wine is made?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"TIKD3P5VJVDSFEYFZQ5YLLLCL4":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"LRM3FEYVB5D6DP327WBUTRXYYM":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(23)","ref":"tariff"},"EWBCN43O2JGY3FLDJXWSEH4AQE":{"time":"40","title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work? ", "text":"Cryptocurrency, broadly, is electronic cash; unlike a typical currency such as the Canadian dollar, it\u2019s not controlled by any single authority like a central bank, government or financial institution

Bitcoin was the first type of cryptocurrency \u2013 and is still the best-known one

It emerged in early 2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eHow does it work?\x3c/strong\x3e Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin have all their transactions recorded in a public ledger, with buyers\u2019 and sellers\u2019 identities hidden using cryptography (that\u2019s where the \u201ccrypto\u201d in the name comes from.) The idea is that the currency is secure because the ledger is not stored on a single machine that could be vulnerable to hacking or manipulation; instead, a network of computers work together to create a shared record of all the transaction data (sort of like a bank ledger), called the \u201cblockchain.\u201d", "refVal":"crypto_only","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","more":[{"text":"The computers that contribute to that network are called \u201ccryptocurrency miners.\u201d They secure that information by solving complex, automatically-generated math puzzles; each time a miner does that, others in the network verify the work and then that block of data is added to the \u201cblockchain\u201d \u2013 the system of shared information that makes the currency work

Cryptocurrency exchanges sell the currency in online marketplaces such as Bitstamp, Coinbase, Cryptsy, and many others, and some are sold at specialty bank machines

The supply of bitcoins is finite: their programming caps the total number at about 21-million coins

That makes cryptocurrency different from typical currency: a central bank can choose to print more money."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhy you\u2019re hearing so much about this:\x3c/strong\x3e At first, the value of cryptocurrencies was zero (that\u2019s still the case for some types.) But some, like bitcoin, have seen their value skyrocket \u2013 however, some warn this is a bubble, and those values could evaporate just as easily

Concerns have also been raised about cryptocurrency being used by people who want to hide financial dealings, such as terrorists, drug traffickers, money launderers and ransomware creators (people who hack others\u2019 computers and demand ransom for the return of their information and other valuable files.) Cryptocurrencies\u2019 future value will depend partly on the extent to which they can be used like money: most major retailers do not yet accept payment via cryptocurrency, though some online stores are experimenting with it."}]}, "E5XWWPURZJFIRHNOMZDJVKXHGY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","ref":"5G"},"WM22VIGHWRDIJANG2BCJCGGUPI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(20)","ref":"nafta"},"Y2DB6RACPFDVZF75A7VKNBXMYU":{"altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"asylum"},"X3PLNCXUDZG2HDSESAPQGLMHEY":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)", "ref":"transmountain2"},"6K3Y6SGY7ZEXZIB7FMYCZMV47I":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on supply management?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(34)","ref":"supply"},"OI7HJPPQXZGYDBIMO76ZGSWJJY":{"time":"30","title":"What is a hate crime?","text":"Broadly, this term is used when a crime (such as arson, assault, vandalism, threats, and others) is motivated by hate or prejudice against a group based on their ethnicity, gender, religion, race, sexual orientation, or other aspects of their identity

The law instructs judges to hand down longer sentences for crimes where evidence shows they were motivated by hate

Under Canadian law, advocating or promoting genocide is a crime, and so is publicly inciting hatred of an \u201cidentifiable group,\u201d if it is \u201clikely to result in a breach of the peace,\u201d according to the Criminal Code

Punishments can include prison time

", "refVal":"hatecrime","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on how Canadian law defines a hate crime?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(17)"},"DFDWAOOSIVF7HCVGXGMUAKWNSA":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"tariff"},"EGY3YCYXFNGF5ENPNFHCUPCIXU":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"tariff"}, "ZF672AKWMFFWNMZVXBEDEYX264":{"title":"What are market indexes like the Dow and why do they matter?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on market indexes like the Dow and why they matter?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"MarketIndex"},"LVN6KEMKBFFHDINC46VDB2RPUY":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"tariff"},"VQDQ5DSU65G7DEOYW34FQ6NSNI":{"title":"What is cap-and-trade?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"emissions or being able to sell extra ones for cash","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"XIH3DPSZ7ZCNBFFER7KZNGHP4M":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"outdoor spire towers above the city\u2019s skyscrapers.","ref":"crypto_only"},"RJOK2SLOCZC4JFVYYUC2O5PI7E":{"title":"What is the Gaza Strip, and what is its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?", "altTitle":"Need a refresher on the Gaza Strip, and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","textLine":"","ref":"Gaza_only"},"IOMUYY2RDNEKTMBV46LJD6IEBI":{"time":"60","title":"Need some background on assisted dying laws in Canada? ","text":"Physician-assisted dying was outlawed in Canada until 2015, when the Supreme Court of Canada struck down a Criminal Code prohibition against it

That decision paved the way for the federal medical-aid-in-dying (MAiD) law, which took effect in 2016

The law applies only to adults who are mentally competent and able to give informed consent without being influenced or pressured by anyone else

It is also limited to people who have a serious illness or disability; who are in an \u201cadvanced state of decline that cannot be reversed\u201d; who suffer unbearable physical or mental pain that can\u2019t be relieved in a way the patient considers acceptable; and whose death is \u201creasonably foreseeable.\u201d All of those criteria must apply, not just one

Suicide is already legal in Canada; encouraging someone to die by suicide is illegal

The MAiD law makes an exception for doctors, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists to provide counsel and assistance to eligible patients

Hundreds of people have died with medical help since the practice became legal

The Supreme Court has declared that the procedure is protected by the Charter of Rights and Freedoms (which is part of our Constitution and enshrines civil and political rights including freedom of religion, voting rights, the right to legal representation, and others).", "refVal":"assisted_dying","altTitle":"Need a catch-up on assisted dying laws in Canada?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","more":[{"text":"While the procedure is legal, the law does not require doctors to help eligible patients to die; some have opted not to

Others have asked for clarifications on some aspects of the legislation

In some provinces, coroners\u2019 offices are reviewing assisted death cases to ensure they comply with the law

Many religious health-care organizations (such as long-term care homes with religious affiliations) have refused to allow the procedure in their facilities, preferring to focus on palliative care to ease suffering associated with a natural death

Patients have had to be transferred out of such facilities in order to have the procedure done

"}]}, "QU5XB47BZVBSZPY7YCFVULFKCA":{"title":"What is 5G?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","textLine":"","ref":"5G"},"PXUV3OT7HJGPPLO5BGF5BTJX24":{"title":"What is cap-and-trade?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"subsidies will quickly meet a similar fate","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"KJ6GQFX6I5DNXKK7BOJLGXLJHA":{"time":"75","title":"Why is Mali in crisis?","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eMali\x3c/strong\x3e, a former French colony in West Africa until independence in 1960, is one of the world\u2019s poorest countries

It often struggles with drought and remains heavily dependent on foreign aid

Since 1962, nomadic Tuareg peoples in the arid northern regions have periodically rebelled against the central government in Bamako \u2013 which is dominated by southerners \u2013 seeking either autonomy or better services

Following its independence from France, Mali was ruled by authoritarian regimes for roughly three decades, until a military coup in 1991

Mali held its first democratic elections in 1992 and earned a reputation as a model of stability and democracy on the continent.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nBut that has changed in \x3cstrong\x3erecent years\x3c/strong\x3e

In late 2011, after Libyan dictator Moammar Gadhafi\u2019s downfall scattered his many well-armed mercenary fighters to neighbouring countries, another Tuareg rebellion began in northern Mali, often allied to Islamist militant groups operating across the Sahel region

In 2012, middle-ranking officers of the Mali Army conducted a coup in the country\u2019s capital, Bamako, which led to a collapse of military resistance against those rebel groups in the north, and Tuaregs declared an independent country called Azawad

But Islamist forces gradually took control and imposed a harsh interpretation of Sharia law across the north

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nWhen rebel forces started moving south in January 2013, France intervened

Air strikes and light mechanized forces drove the rebels out of the key cities in the north, and a \x3cstrong\x3eUN peacekeeping mission\x3c/strong\x3e was established later that year.", "refVal":"Mali_crisis","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the crisis in Mali?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","more":[{"text":"Subsequent peace agreements gave the Tuareg more autonomy

But the slow implementation of agreements and promised political reforms has allowed the number of armed groups to proliferate, with increasing violence in the central region

Officially, Mali returned to democracy with elections in 2013

But the government has little control over the north and centre of the country

The ongoing UN peacekeeping mission there has suffered heavy casualties

Canada announced in March 2018 that it would send helicopters and troops to support the mission."}]}, "NCAOTP3V7BD7FJ75TIKYNYHB3Y":{"title":"Why is Mali in crisis?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the crisis in Mali?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Ahead of July\u2019s presidential elections","ref":"Mali_crisis"},"ZORBDPJ6DFHL5DVB5RFTCQZMRA":{"title":"What is a special counsel? ","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the role of a special counsel?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","textLine":"","ref":"SpecialCounsel"},"DFWDBUHZOZFQPDULDICHFBTBGQ":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"generally is going to be a theme this year","ref":"ai_old3"},"BA4C4CV3J5BADOPLIMY4OBLEWA":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence? Is it different from machine learning? ","altTitle":"Need a refresher on artificial intelligence and machine learning?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","textLine":"","ref":"ai_old"},"MOPJXHHXXBB7VO75TII3NWJYKY":{"title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?", "altTitle":"Need a refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(17)","textLine":"","ref":"transmountain2"},"RRI2VLMFL5HVBJDOGP3IERRY7M":{"title":"Why is Mali in crisis?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the crisis in Mali?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"extrajudicial killings and arbitrary arrests by Mali\u2019s military","ref":"Mali_crisis"},"KBIKWRBSOBEETJR3T5IKJ5AKIA":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"stalled talks to overhaul the North American free-trade agreement","ref":"nafta"},"5NSOYZ4FY5DDXBN4DQHBWXBCRQ":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","textLine":"","ref":"tariff"},"3FMEIFDYOBCDXMTNJJW3FERAME":{"title":"Need some background on assisted dying laws in Canada? ","altTitle":"Need a catch-up on assisted dying laws in Canada?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"process has been legal for almost two years.","ref":"assisted_dying"},"TAKYN654JBHBJL23Q7IC3PL5BQ":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","textLine":"","ref":"tariff"},"PP6FG2OIM5CV5EPKVQQZZERBBI":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the conflict in Syria?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"Syria"},"J76YLSAKINA6JMFQAM5GEJ6NUQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)", "ref":"SpecialCounsel"},"IRILE4CRKNGEPPAGYXHBV2K2GE":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"now they\u2019re angry that the Liberals aren\u2019t doing enough.","ref":"transmountain2"},"GYWASUB65VCLDGMZZJQMEDLJIQ":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"funnelled into cryptocurrencies and they are especially popular with young investors.", "ref":"crypto_only"},"KTUQA3TIABCCHMNBD3VRQ5KPAM":{"title":"Why is Mali in crisis?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the crisis in Mali?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"larger United Nations peacekeeping force","ref":"Mali_crisis"},"ZBH76JRCZZCNDFFCOI432W6GPQ":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"NAFTA council, which includes business, political and diplomatic leaders", "ref":"nafta"},"CPHAGABAY5DL7KEJTKXOWAMX5U":{"title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?","altTitle":"Need a catch-up on Trans Mountain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","textLine":"","ref":"transmountain2"},"Z4IPDNWJARC5XMBDR7TLQWSNEA":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","textLine":"","ref":"tariff"},"5P4OZNSLJFEIJN4HAGVDSL7H2E":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"absence of much positive news","ref":"crypto_only"},"SECY6NJJIFAGJKLM5BEKILHRDE":{"title":"Need some background on the conflict in Syria? ","altTitle":"Need a catch-up on the conflict in Syria?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Syrians and others since","ref":"Syria"},"AK2XDNFJHZGNHLR62WFLJVTAIE":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"devastating duties on all vehicles and parts", "ref":"tariff"},"66IAMLN4DZDEVFS4PBVHJAELDU":{"title":"Need some background on the conflict in Syria? ","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the conflict in Syria?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","textLine":"","ref":"Syria"},"6XMQBKQBCRG4BMEBP4J5IZES5M":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"defense at a NATO summit in Brussels next month","ref":"tariff"},"AYJZAEGMGFEJJAAE76TRKKFHGE":{"title":"Why is Mali in crisis?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the crisis in Mali?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"entire peacekeeping force to Mali","ref":"Mali_crisis"},"DJLA6ZQGQRFDZHI25PJZHE3U7Y":{"time":"55","title":"What is the Palestinian government under Abbas, and is it different from Hamas?","text":"Mahmoud Abbas is the president of the \x3cstrong\x3e Palestinian Authority (PA),\x3c/strong\x3e which is essentially a placeholder government meant to run the Palestinian territories until a deal can be reached with Israel

It runs the West Bank under Israeli occupation, but does not run the Gaza Strip

Opponents criticize the government for cooperating with that occupation

Fatah, a secular movement, currently leads that government

Mr

Abbas is the leader of Fatah and also the PA president

While Fatah engaged in armed conflict with Israel in the 1960s \u2013 and still maintains an armed wing called the al-Aqsa Martyrs\u2019 Brigades \u2013 it has been open to diplomatic negotiations with Israel.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nThe PA does not run the Gaza Strip \u2013 another Palestinian territory in a sliver of land in the west of Israel, which is under Israeli blockade

Gaza is controlled, rather, by \x3cstrong\x3eHamas,\x3c/strong\x3e a militant organization that is an offshoot of the international Muslim Brotherhood movement

Hamas does not recognize Israel\u2019s right to exist \u2013 and from its founding, has regularly called for the destruction of the Jewish state.", "refVal":"PA_emphAbbas","altTitle":"Need a refresher on Palestinian leadership in the region?","textLine":"fate of contested Jerusalem","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)\x3c/strong\x3e is a national organization that encompasses many political parties, of which Fatah is the most dominant

The PLO represents Palestinians at the United Nations, and takes part in peace talks with Israel when they occur

(The peace process has been effectively stalled since 2014.) Because Hamas is not part of the PLO, however, its role as a unified representative of the Palestinian people has been questioned \u2013 particularly since any peace deal would require an agreement with Hamas as well."}]}, "FRI6NVSY7VBELOE23HYJBO7YN4":{"title":"What is cap-and-trade?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"if participating companies will be reimbursed","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"5K27FIEQ3BD7VFE4MZTWR62FXE":{"title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"knew what the final outcome was likely to be","ref":"transmountain2"}, "CQESNP3NYFCQTFSO3MX5YW7YWQ":{"title":"What is AI?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on AI technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Vancouver or disclosed plans to do so","ref":"ai_old3"},"BY7KVHXVIFHWJIINPQAA4CDRJA":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"U.S

metal, food and other products","ref":"tariff"},"QDD472C3SJH5ND6OOVW7JAEVXQ":{"time":"35","title":"Need a quick catch-up on pharmacare in Canada? ", "text":"Canadians spend more per person on prescription drugs than any other country except the United States

That can\u2019t be explained only by Canadians taking more drugs overall

The main reason is that prices are significantly higher here

That\u2019s partly because of how drugs are covered: a single, national drug coverage plan \u2014 usually referred to as \u201cpharmacare\u201d -- would have more negotiating power on drug prices

Canada\u2019s public healthcare system does not currently cover prescription drugs under a national plan

Instead, prescription medications are paid for by a patchwork of private insurance plans, by individuals paying out-of-pocket and in some cases by provincial public plans

In 2018, the federal government said it would study options for implementing national pharmacare.", "refVal":"pharmacare","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on pharmacare in Canada?","textLine":"fast-growing cost pressure on the public purse","more":[{"text":"Canada is supposed to have a check on excessive drug prices: the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board (PMPRB), a quasi-judicial body created in the 80s, has the authority to order companies to drop drug prices if they\u2019re too high

The problem is that the PMPRB determines a price is excessive by comparing it with the listed price for that same drug in a handful of other countries, including the United States, which has the highest drug prices in the world

But the list price is not the true price; private insurers and governments often negotiate discounts

As long as companies keep the list price high in other wealthy countries, the drug may not be deemed excessively expensive in Canada

That could soon change: The federal government is overhauling PMPRB, with new regulations slated to take effect at the beginning of 2019."}, {"text":"Just how high are our drug prices compared to other countries? Canada has the third-highest prices out of the 35 countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

And these days, there are more high-cost drugs on the market than in the past: In 2015, more than 65 new drugs came on the market in Canada that cost more than $20,000 per patient per year (20 of those were over $50,000)

Compare that to 2005, when just three new drugs were introduced with a price tag over $20,000

Relatively few people take such expensive drugs, but they still drive most of the increase in overall spending: In 2015, public spending on prescription drugs in Canada was up 9.2 per cent compared to the previous year, but two-thirds of that increase was attributed just to drugs for Hepatitis C that cost as much as $50,000 per patient."}]}, "NXL7VSRNVFEHLPQWXTPGV2CPS4":{"time":"35","title":"Need some background on drug companies\u2019 payments to doctors in Canada?","text":"The pharmaceutical industry\u2019s financial ties to the medical community are pervasive

Drug companies regularly fund research or pay doctors to attend conferences and meetings, to take part in clinical trials and to sit on advisory boards, among other things

In Canada, there are no nationwide rules about disclosing such payments

(Ontario passed legislation in 2017 to require disclosures from pharmaceutical companies, but the regulations were not finalized before the Progressive Conservatives under Doug Ford won a majority in the province.) That\u2019s in contrast to some other places such as the U.S., which requires companies to report payments to doctors of US$10 or more

Some Canadian doctors and medical associations have urged federal and provincial governments to introduce transparency rules.", "refVal":"drugpayments_doctors","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on drug companies\u2019 payments to doctors in Canada?","textLine":"speeches, sitting on advisory boards, travelling to conferences and other work","more":[{"text":"Why is this a problem? Financial conflicts of interest could influence doctors\u2019 prescribing decisions, as well as clinical practice guidelines that recommend the best course of treatment for various conditions

Doctors rely on those guidelines because they don\u2019t have time to read hundreds of research studies whenever they make a treatment decision

Instead, panels of doctors synthesize that information

The guidelines have an impact on how doctors prescribe drugs

A 2017 Globe and Mail analysis looked at nine guideline documents and found that 46 per cent of the panelists involved in producing them had received funding from companies that might benefit from a positive mention of their drugs

Because there are no rules defining what counts as a conflict of interest, or requiring disclosure, panels are left to set their own standards."}]}, "IQM42CWM5VGIDKF5BBTEHELTSM":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"tariffs on Canadian auto imports","ref":"tariff"},"7LPQW3KHCBA3RDQLOGWEP7ZNTA":{"title":"What is a carbon tax?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on carbon taxes? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","textLine":"","ref":"carbontax"},"IXFGVHXEFFHGLLKTJEBVMP4R6E":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"hack-prone","ref":"crypto_only"},"SQYFLZZ2ZVHP7HYWFMBKSWFQLA":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"cryptocurrency exchange operators","ref":"crypto_only"},"V5WNVWRD2BFO3HJTAGRTZH7IJ4":{"title":"Need a catch-up on the significance of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the significance of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"also include the West Bank and Gaza Strip","ref":"westbankgaza"},"CTXHX6P3ZNGIDI4JVTUF6MUKZA":{"title":"What are market indexes like the Nikkei and FTSE and why do they matter? ","altTitle":"Need a refresher on market indexes like the Nikkei and FTSE and why they matter?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Canadian dollar was below 75.5 US cents","ref":"MarketIndex"},"CJ5KRRRDMRAGXB2773XTZ545JQ":{"title":"What is a tariff?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"technology gap in 10 key sectors","ref":"tariff"},"VPW7VQXJVBHMRBBMNFEA3WNNUQ":{"title":"What is 5G?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"5G","ref":"5G"},"YOOLOEBF3FD3PBSTJUKJM5H6RA":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"cryptocurrency","ref":"crypto_only"},"3M5F4VZA75GIBPIXJ4OZTYEGYI":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"swipe","ref":"tariff"},"DBQ6F5NYVFEHZDWXNFI2DBJHWI":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"artificial intelligence, that will both","ref":"ai_old3"},"ESQP3KSHH5BLVIKEBPGJUD6YXQ":{"title":"What is a tariff?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","textLine":"","ref":"tariff"},"UOMVIBIZW5HEPJLYBYQ2OF5OYQ":{"time":"40","title":"Why is Canada joining the peacekeeping mission in Mali?","text":"Mali is poor, politically unstable and facing expanding violence from rebel forces in the north and centre of the country

France has been at the forefront of military operations in Mali (its former colony) since 2013

Canada announced in March, 2018, that it would send helicopters and troops to support the ongoing peacekeeping mission, which is one of the UN\u2019s most dangerous: More than 160 peacekeepers have been killed there since 2013.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nMany countries have strategic interests in Mali

The United States is concerned about northern Mali as a source of Islamist fighters

Its role as a route for traffickers bringing migrants and drugs into Europe is an issue for European countries

For Canada, Mali is among the top recipients of foreign aid

There are also economic factors: Canadian mining companies have invested more than $1-billion in the country.", "refVal":"Mali_peacekeeping","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Canada\u2019s role in the peacekeeping mission in Mali?","textLine":"participate in medical evacuation missions.","more":[{"text":"This is one of Canada\u2019s first major peacekeeping efforts in Africa since the troubled missions in Somalia and Rwanda in the 1990s

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has been stepping up Canada\u2019s participation in the UN since 2015

The country has not been a member of the UN Security Council since 2000; Mr

Trudeau wants to secure Canada a temporary seat

Conservative critics see the mission as an attempt to curry favour with the UN

The bigger question is whether the UN intervention, and Canada\u2019s contribution, can make any real difference in reconstructing a broken state

"}]}, "LWZPKCZT2JEI3H5OQQIPW42JSE":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","textLine":"","ref":"tariff"},"UOWOLHU67BC3BNURT2BOZQ5YKI":{"title":"What is a special counsel? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the role of a special counsel?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","textLine":"","ref":"SpecialCounsel"},"BA4ZSKPVDJHPXPHJNTEPOYIPBY":{"title":"Need some background on drug companies\u2019 payments to doctors in Canada?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on drug companies\u2019 payments to doctors in Canada?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"conflict of interest when they recommend a drug or procedure","ref":"drugpayments_doctors"},"YFQMFKH5M5HBJBYV7TUYH2QHEE":{"title":"What is softwood and why has it been in the news so many times over the years?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the dispute over softwood lumber?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"costs of softwood tariffs", "ref":"softwood"},"DGYQPJTNTZAV7MXLUKKH5JUY5Q":{"title":"Background on the missing and murdered indigenous women in Canada","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"addicts","ref":"MMIW"},"DYAGS7VEO5AM7JKIWISI2V6UIQ":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"consume on a daily basis","ref":"ai_old3"},"DZ47Y2JUT5ETPCUTO6BRMDREEE":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"artificial intelligence","ref":"ai_old3"},"4ZRADLHX25HOBABQLS6DMLFLAU":{"title":"What is cap-and-trade?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Education and Skills Development","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"YM624IWSF5F2DP6B3WKRZICHLM":{"title":"Need some background on the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"and later killed them","ref":"FARC"},"W5N65ZZGLZGPRHKECDLI4XB5RA":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Chinese imports with tariffs","ref":"nafta"},"IEK7AAHDTRF3DCD2KNUS2BNWEY":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"aluminum imports","ref":"tariff"},"B7HS7H4OK5GLZO3VKBIV55OZXU":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"no small increase","ref":"tariff"},"POC3NGBFIBBYFDADCP24QEEBVE":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"markets in Asia","ref":"tariff"},"BFXZ366BHFD3LFTSDXIOVBKO7I":{"title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?", "altTitle":"Need a refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"the green light","ref":"transmountain2"},"KUQYMR4REJCVXO24FHPYVZV37Y":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on artificial intelligence?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":" technology to government","ref":"ai_old3"},"LHTMMQQKCFAPRBNS5A7SAAVMBA":{"title":"What is blockchain?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on blockchain technology?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"the coming weeks","ref":"blockchain"},"JR6ULFVE3ZFYTHA7RRLHXWWCT4":{"title":"What is vaping and how does it work? ","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"vape pens","ref":"vaping2"},"QVIFUQ4O6FCZ5PCBE5Z45DO2IA":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"NAFTA tape","ref":"nafta"},"ZQ2UNOGTFNCTZPIUSMOJRGRZSM":{"title":"Background on the missing and murdered indigenous women in Canada", "altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Indigenous women seriously","ref":"MMIW"},"RTZLXEZSMFE5LCSVRNTHYWQLMA":{"title":"What is 5G?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"5G next-generation ","ref":"5G"},"WKBE43EYHFGKZEADZY4AISKYHA":{"title":"Need a quick refresher on AI and machine learning?","altTitle":"Need a quick catch-up on AI and machine learning?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"ward off","ref":"ai_old"},"I3XYW6HFQ5EVFJ2WC5IW7ZJD5I":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"wither","ref":"crypto_only"},"AMGVWKEJHBAAFIDB7TD7TTKGWU":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on the U.S

travel ban?","altTitle":"Need some background on the U.S

travel ban?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","textLine":"","ref":"travel_ban"}, "YI3LMEFBFVE77HQ2HBTPWNE24Q":{"title":"Why is Canada joining the peacekeeping mission in Mali?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Canada\u2019s role in the peacekeeping mission in Mali?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"errors of the past","ref":"Mali_peacekeeping"},"PHWPXYTZPRDRZOE4HW3OEEPSOE":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"automakers in Canada","ref":"tariff"},"EMB2EICC7RHDZLUC4W5N5ZK3VY":{"title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Kathy Hipple","ref":"transmountain2"},"GBSRM4SRSNFGLGHUG6AMX4JNCM":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"deceptive promotional practices","ref":"crypto_only"},"DR4ZX4SVENCQVIXPLAA3KCYYWA":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on NAFTA?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"even lose NAFTA","ref":"nafta"},"RB7JCDD23VHUFJ3UBFYP4BZYKA":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"North American free-trade","ref":"nafta"},"6D2EA6DLHJHMPJA6UOADLKOFOA":{"title":"What is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"is no exception","ref":"asylum"},"O2LVTUM6JZEMDLHRKVCCUD7VDQ":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on the Russia investigation? ","altTitle":"Need some background on the Russia investigation?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"testify against Trump","ref":"Russia"},"QQ4HXZQMINEH5EWLXLHB3BDZLM":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on the U.S

travel ban?","altTitle":"Need some background on the U.S

travel ban?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"enemy countries alike", "ref":"travel_ban"},"BECUZJABBZAMZJLIG453TTAICQ":{"title":"What is a tariff?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Canada\u2019s auto sector","ref":"tariff"},"F6PPESZFJBHQVOXQM3J7BLEOLY":{"title":"What is the travel ban, and does it amount to a ban on Muslims entering the U.S.?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the U.S

travel ban and how it\u2019s changed?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"inflame it","ref":"travel_ban"}, "LMDPZ3C7WJC2BCN3NFBHICSBVQ":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"artificial intelligence","ref":"ai_old3"},"VG677GCUURCVRPYQFDKAN44Y3E":{"title":"What is machine learning? Is it different from AI?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on machine learning and AI?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":" data and machine learning","ref":"ai_old2"},"NTSV425L2BBLHBGZNJL4EYFV7I":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on NAFTA?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"NAFTA","ref":"nafta"},"Y73FFDHFSVGTPPHLGUYYEF3JAQ":{"title":"Why is Canada joining the peacekeeping mission in Mali?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Canada\u2019s role in the peacekeeping mission in Mali?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"peace and security","ref":"Mali_peacekeeping"},"RSRYXBWODVDMNEPLEAI5656RAY":{"title":"How do tariffs work?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"threatening to do more.","ref":"tariff"},"LB23QF3S3RGJZEY7A5M5XXTQ6Q":{"time":"50","title":'Need some background on DACA and the "Dreamers"?',"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eDeferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)\x3c/strong\x3e is a program that protects some younger people from deportation if they were brought to the U.S

illegally as children

But it is not a path to citizenship: eligible people receive temporary work or study permits, which must be renewed every two years

When DACA was instituted by an executive order from President Barack Obama in 2012, it was intended as a temporary stopgap in place of broader immigration reform.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nYou might hear people who fall under DACA referred to as \x3cstrong\x3e\u201cDreamers.\u201d\x3c/strong\x3e That\u2019s a reference to the \x3cstrong\x3eDREAM Act,\x3c/strong\x3e a bill proposing a path to citizenship over time for those young people

DACA was put in place to protect them from deportation, while DREAM, which was first introduced in 2001, faced resistance in being passed into law

Some representatives in the U.S

government are still working to get it passed

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nInitiatives to find a permanent immigration solution have gained urgency since the fall of 2017, when Donald Trump\u2019s administration announced DACA would end in March of 2018

", "refVal":"DACA_Dreamers","altTitle":'Need a refresher on DACA and the "Dreamers"?',"textLine":"U.S.-Mexico border wall","more":[{"text":"President Trump, and many Republicans, have resisted any proposal to make DACA permanent unless it could be paired with increased border security, which includes the wall President Trump has said he will build on Mexican border

The end of DACA did not mean that people immediately began to be deported in March of 2018: two-year permits had to expire first, and various court battles have been launched to attempt to preserve the program or to allow for further permit renewals.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nDACA's focus is younger people: to be eligible, undocumented immigrants had to meet the following criteria: they had to be under 16 when they arrived in the States, they had to have arrived prior to June 2007, and they had to be under 30 when the program began, in 2012

How many people is that? About 700,000 people were actively protected by DACA in September 2017, when the phase-out was announced

Those recipients are now in limbo."}]}, "2YIV7K7B7VHRROITUTGHOZW7UU":{"title":"How do tariffs work?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"bike production overseas","ref":"tariff"},"WWEU7ABER5GIZFFPCP4OPMCKBY":{"time":"40","title":'What does it mean to say a wine is "oaked"? ',"text":"Many wines are left to mature in oak barrels, which impart a variety of flavours, notably vanilla

This is likely what\u2019s being referenced when a wine is described as oaky

These flavours come in degrees, depending on how long a wine spends in the barrel, how the barrel is \u201ctoasted\u201d or charred, and the species of oak used \u2013 French and American oak are the two main examples of wood used to make wine barrels

Tannins that come from the wood can also be astringent, prompting a dry sensation in the mouth

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\n\u201cIntegrated oak\u201d refers to maturation that has yielded subtler flavours; you can sense vanilla, but in a way that complements the underlying fruit and never seems dominant or cloying

By contrast, if a wine is \u201coverly oaked,\u201d it might lack sufficient fruitiness to support the lumber.", "refVal":"wine_oaked","altTitle":'Need a quick refresher on what it means to say a wine is "oaked"?',"textLine":"Cherries, tangy cedar, sweet spices"},"BJG23X6MFBBUBFTV4P3JE45T7I":{"title":"Need some background on market indexes like the Dow and the S\x26P, and why they matter?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on market indexes like the Dow and the S\x26P, and why they matter?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"China technology investments","ref":"MarketIndex"},"QF27FJGFGZHSFAM3J3YMML77CM":{"title":"What is blockchain?", "altTitle":"Need some background on blockchain technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"ownership themselves","ref":"blockchain"},"E4HRVAOP6ZEVJNAUMWKBBN5YKU":{"title":"Need some background on the Russia investigation? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Russia investigation?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"alleged meddling","ref":"Russia"},"IPLF54KRNRDFRHE2W3RAECVKUI":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick catch-up on NAFTA?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"over the summer months","ref":"nafta"},"VMMU3TJEZNDEPG3FZNNPDKJSIE":{"title":"Need some background on the G7?","altTitle":"What is the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"G8 again","ref":"G7"},"7S5Z2AV6HFE6LCL3LUJLGGNMKQ":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Canadian-made cars","ref":"nafta"},"Q3QBZREE3BF7PJWNJCSLWKI22E":{"title":"Need some background on drug companies\u2019 payments to doctors in Canada?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on drug companies\u2019 payments to doctors in Canada?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"medical conferences","ref":"drugpayments_doctors"},"J4L6IZHNDFA7BFA5B3JY56XZDE":{"title":"Need some background on drug companies\u2019 payments to doctors in Canada?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on drug companies\u2019 payments to doctors in Canada?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"consulting on a similar law","ref":"drugpayments_doctors"}, "4RRJKIHC55GKZFY4VONUNCGSR4":{"title":"Need some background on drug companies\u2019 payments to doctors in Canada?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on drug companies\u2019 payments to doctors in Canada?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"organizations last year","ref":"drugpayments_doctors"},"ZAG7XFC64BFOHJN57TFLETEDXI":{"title":"What is cap-and-trade?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"funded through the program", "ref":"CapAndTrade"},"VEGZJYDMAJCUBISFRIPYQ5LO5Q":{"time":"90","title":"Need some background on interest rates and what they say about the economy?","text":"You\u2019re probably familiar with the concept of interest: I borrow money from you and pay you back plus extra \u2013 interest \u2013 for the privilege of using your money

\x3cstrong\x3e\u201cInterest rates\u201d\x3c/strong\x3e indicate how much interest lenders such as banks charge

When you take out a loan (like a mortgage to buy a house,) you hope for a low interest rate; when you park your money somewhere (like in a savings account or a government bond) you hope for the highest interest rate possible.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nInterest rates are influenced by a few things, including inflation (i.e

prices for goods going up, which diminishes your money\u2019s buying power); how many people or companies are trying to take out loans, and conversely, how many are choosing to save; and policy.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eMonetary policy\x3c/strong\x3e is guided by central banks (here, that\u2019s the Bank of Canada; in the U.S

that\u2019s the Federal Reserve or \u201cthe Fed\u201d)

You borrow money from the bank, but the bank borrows money from the central bank; when the Bank of Canada adjusts its policy rate, it can affect market interest rates too.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eWhy is this news?\x3c/strong\x3e Because interest rates have an effect all across the economy \u2013 including on your wallet.", "refVal":"Interest_rates","altTitle":"What are interest rates and what do they say about the economy?","textLine":"laid those out","more":[{"text":"When interest rates go up, the Canadian dollar tends to rise too

That\u2019s because investors buy more of the currency looking for higher returns

Also, when it becomes more expensive to borrow money, spending slows (for example, you might be less inclined to take out that mortgage and buy that house; the same goes for businesses borrowing money to spend on projects)

In turn, that slows down economic growth \u2013 which can be a good thing, because too much inflation can mean the economy is growing too fast for things like wages, and the value of people\u2019s savings, to keep up."}, {"text":"When you hear news reports about interest rates going up or down, they are probably talking about market rates; when reports talk about the Fed or the Bank of Canada raising rates, they are talking about the bank\u2019s policy rate

You might also hear a reference to the \u201cnominal\u201d interest rate \u2013 that\u2019s the stated rate without accounting for the rate of inflation (i.e

the annual percentage by which prices for goods are rising, which diminishes your money\u2019s buying power)

In contrast, the \u201creal\u201d rate takes the stated rate and subtracts the rate of inflation."}]}, "MD2EKVKP5REPDLLB5SKCXWAPHI":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"plant in Saguenay","ref":"tariff"},"4NUASNIOJRHQLDLCY23KLI4ADI":{"title":"Need some background on artificial intelligence?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on AI technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"dollars are at stake","ref":"ai_old3"},"YL3ISCOCPFFHPCSBVF2R5EVIVA":{"title":"Need some background on the Russia investigation? ", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Russia investigation? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"witch hunt","ref":"Russia"},"SKIFPRPSXVE6VHTSYTDSCQNBXQ":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"including soybeans","ref":"tariff"},"SWMPAZYUTNCM3AUSETENIPYTNE":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"midterms in November","ref":"nafta"},"IQP4E3UYWFEZLGPERL2D5REJU4":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"over several years","ref":"tariff"},"ULROWASDFJDFBNEJP6ZPSN72AA":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"President\u2019s metals tariffs","ref":"nafta"},"K46WRL42UZFRXFNOETDJGT3NAY":{"time":"35", "title":"Need some background on initial coin offerings (ICOs)?","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eInitial coin offerings (ICO)\x3c/strong\x3e should not be confused with initial public offerings (IPO) even though they are both ways for companies to raise money from investors

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nAn IPO happens when a company goes public (i.e

when it begins selling shares to investors on a public stock market for the first time)

An ICO is a much newer process, involving digital tokens or coins known as cryptocurrencies (a form of electronic cash which, unlike a typical currency such as the Canadian dollar, is not controlled by any single authority like a central bank, government or financial institution.) Companies use ICOs to raise money by selling coins to investors, as an alternative to seeking financing from venture capitalists or selling shares on highly-regulated stock markets

", "refVal":"ICO","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on initial coin offerings (ICOs)?","textLine":"token offerings","more":[{"text":"Some companies have raised millions of dollars through ICOs, but the practice is also attracting more scrutiny

Regulators such as the U.S

Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and regulatory association Canadian Securities Administrators have cautioned that coins are similar to stocks and should be subject to similar laws and protections for investors

In some cases, for example, the SEC has cracked down on companies selling coins while promising unrealistic returns and not divulging business risks that would normally be required for selling stock."}]}, "LGZ365TAJNB4XEJUA3FVP46YFI":{"title":"What is cap-and-trade?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"next spring","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"GBK335PNWNFQXD43DCTR4GC67E":{"title":"Need some background on price fixing?","altTitle":"What is price fixing?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"industry event","ref":"price_fixing"},"NT5ZTQKXQRATZOTBJIGHJ7VO3A":{"title":"Need some background on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"the takeover","ref":"TimHortons"},"ZOQHPQWXBFB7LNRXMJGDBQTZ7A":{"title":"What is price fixing?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on price fixing?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"gift cards","ref":"price_fixing"},"A7V6XC2PQVBNXBRHN32ZMMDDPQ":{"title":"How do tariffs work?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"U.S

products","ref":"tariff"},"2FKGRTJ67REORAOUQIR2MA5374":{"title":"Need some background on carbon pricing?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on carbon pricing?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"gas sector","ref":"carbontax"},"OUQ3WSFXDJHUNFHMVAMJ7Z725U":{"title":"Need some background on Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies?","altTitle":"What is Bitcoin and how do cryptocurrencies work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"early 2000s","ref":"crypto_old"}, "LHAL5WHRGJH6LBOBLXBR6BUKZE":{"title":"Need some background on the Russia investigation? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Russia investigation? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Christopher Steele","ref":"Russia"},"GF52XKJIKJHSZAAJO7SXZ7HNEA":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"a trade war","ref":"tariff"},"CHYPNJ3JINA3HJO2BVTRVMK6BM":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Canada and Mexico","ref":"nafta"},"YNH2SWZ2X5AXFN5WR7MZDRHSFU":{"time":"70","title":"Need some background on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy?","text":"High-level decisions affect the supply of money \u2013 like the Canadian dollar, for example \u2013 in the market

This is known as monetary policy, and it is guided by \x3cstrong\x3ecentral banks\x3c/strong\x3e

The central bank here is the Bank of Canada; in the U.S

that\u2019s the Federal Reserve, or \u201cthe Fed.\u201d It distributes the country\u2019s currency and is ultimately responsible for assuring the stability of the country\u2019s financial system, providing emergency funds if needed to keep the system flowing.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nThe Bank of Canada is best known for influencing \x3cstrong\x3einterest rates\x3c/strong\x3e (i.e

the cost of borrowing money, which affects everything from how expensive your mortgage is, to how much you earn in a savings account, to how much businesses are incentivized to borrow money and build up their companies, and a host of other impacts across the economy)

You borrow money from the bank, but the banks borrow money from the central bank; when the Bank of Canada adjusts its policy rate, it can affect market interest rates too.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nOne of the things a central bank can influence is \x3cstrong\x3einflation\x3c/strong\x3e (a term for how fast prices for consumer goods are rising \u2013 and in turn, how much the buying power of that dollar in your wallet is falling)

The central bank pays attention to this because keeping inflation relatively low has proven to be a good way of assuring that the economy is stable.", "refVal":"BankofCanada","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy?","textLine":"July 11","more":[{"text":'\x3cstrong\x3eHow does the central bank influence inflation?\x3c/strong\x3e When there are indications of too much inflation, the Bank of Canada may choose to raise its "target for the overnight rate" \u2013 a term for the target it sets for other banks to charge for interest across the market

It influences that target by changing both the "bank rate" (the interest it charges to other banks to borrow money) and the interest it pays on any extra money those banks have deposited with the central bank overnight

When banks follow suit and raise their own rates, that can put a damper on inflation

'}, {"text":"That\u2019s because, when it becomes more expensive to borrow money, spending slows; for example, you might be less inclined to take out that mortgage and buy that house, and the same goes for businesses borrowing money to spend on projects

In turn, that slows down economic growth \u2013 which can be a good thing, because too much inflation can mean the economy is growing too fast for things like wages, and the value of people\u2019s savings, to keep up."}]},"IPW4VVSKN5GRHEYGFHYE55R25A":{"title":"Need some background on carbon pricing?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on carbon pricing? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"peril","ref":"carbontax"},"HN6KYQKQIRGTVITZN47UZVP7JU":{"title":"Need some background on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Strauss","ref":"TimHortons"},"5NMMNPPW5RDDTCCX7STPXFZSTE":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"changes to the terms","ref":"nafta"},"YXIHPIMCCRDPJKHBHF3FWDBYOQ":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"U.S

jobs","ref":"tariff"},"64JZHBO565FGRNSB7W4R6CPMFM":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"to U.S

demands","ref":"nafta"}, "HFOXFSFB3FGPBEKCXDOTEASGSI":{"title":"What is cap-and-trade?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"four-year mandate","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"WKZ6BYC24ZG7BFKFQACCZW2KJQ":{"title":"Need some background on the Russia investigation? ","altTitle":"Need a quick catch-up on the Russia investigation? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"witch hunt","ref":"Russia"},"6TYKFV7PHBECFJ25BHWWKDUWTI":{"title":"Need some background on artificial intelligence (AI)?", "altTitle":"What is artificial intelligence (AI)?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"of the International Space Station","ref":"ai_old3"},"45FO3RBOPVHOFBQVK5Z47LUPTE":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"car parts","ref":"tariff"},"EV273UTOOVC5LKK2H5ND22RIMI":{"title":"Need some background on pharmacare in Canada? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on pharmacare in Canada?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"absolute priority","ref":"pharmacare"},"VY3TH7BJ2BDUVEI52HEIWFLCHQ":{"title":"What is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","altTitle":"Need some background on asylum seekers crossing the Canada-U.S

border? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Guibert-Wolff","ref":"asylum"},"JNEMMPNL3ZEHJLXYVCWTIS6TUQ":{"title":"What is machine learning? Is it different from AI?","altTitle":"Need some background on machine learning and AI?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"machine-learning","ref":"ai_old2"},"AXHIV3RRPNBHBMPQFMIZ64PEPY":{"title":"Need some background on cap-and-trade?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"2019","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"4DKJVDBFIZAAFHEZZMEA7A3T5M":{"title":"A short background on the crisis in Mali","altTitle":"A quick refresher on the crisis in Mali","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"eight French soldiers", "ref":"Mali_crisis"},"FGYSUHPFHJD5NNYOMATHFVMWBM":{"title":"Need some background on cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and how they work?","altTitle":"What is cryptocurrency and what is bitcoin and how does it work? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"to zero","ref":"crypto_old"},"LN65KR43JVCCBERSDFXI4OYEQE":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"more fair","ref":"nafta"},"E5OCL3PGD5HEDOCEVIVWQT3M5A":{"title":"Need some background on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"midmonth","ref":"BankofCanada"},"2PVBYJER5BF3BD2AXHKXFULD3U":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Leamington, Ont.","ref":"tariff"},"GAJESQRFDZATDAUWYCJ6QM4OSM":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"U.S

customers","ref":"tariff"},"7SOC52MGIRHQLOFC3OGI5B4GXU":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"peso currency","ref":"nafta"},"CS5Q57CSHBCIJCSDDD7WM4GDKM":{"title":"Need some background on the conflict in Syria? ","altTitle":"Background on the conflict in Syria","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"near its border", "ref":"Syria"},"WHNP2A6L6VCE3EKQKUGP5GCDQM":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"after the election","ref":"nafta"},"I6UYXO6FLVDMZFQ5TTE4UVRPXQ":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"fears of a trade war","ref":"tariff"},"WDDWREPJSJF3BIGYRQMNGIRHVE":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Trade Agreement","ref":"nafta"},"RMTJR3GFBBHPPIRXCEIZPGQP4Q":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"economic sense","ref":"tariff"},"QHTBSROFBRFUDFNTQ7SRHGHXCA":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"conclude swiftly","ref":"nafta"},"FTQFIFT6ERHO3FXL5N6WLR72BY":{"title":"Need some background on the Gaza Strip, and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","altTitle":"What is the Gaza Strip, and what is its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"the army said","ref":"Gaza_only"},"6KHUCD3NA5B6JAYLCMLGF4OSNY":{"title":"Background on the missing and murdered indigenous women in Canada","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"impartiality","ref":"MMIW"},"N56MH36ORJHW3GQQ2CSPJLWH4Y":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"to China","ref":"tariff"},"X2E6XS6MWVCXVD3JRST5DVLMRM":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"protectionist demands","ref":"nafta"},"42JHBGJ47NAMJPYTEUA2S4Z5CY":{"title":"Need some background on artificial intelligence?", "altTitle":"What is artificial intelligence?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"in elections","ref":"ai_old3"},"YUG4TGFPNNG4BOKXBEWL6W4AUY":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"been difficult","ref":"nafta"},"IDKL7NJFZZBRFDVAI3PPCTYGMY":{"title":"Need some background on blockchain?","altTitle":"What is blockchain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"public and trackable", "ref":"blockchain"},"QSOJ5B34KZG3DO4FV6EBXRRUFI":{"title":"Need some background on the FARC and their peace deal with the Colombian government? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the FARC and their peace deal with the Colombian government? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"around the country","ref":"FARC"},"QEDWINO5RZA5VDJHYFBQVAW3DU":{"title":"Need some background on market indexes like the Nikkei and why they matter?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on market indexes like the Nikkei and why they matter?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"cents","ref":"dow_index"},"IOSYOSS7RVGGNHTOIM33FYVLCU":{"title":"How does the Globe use anonymous sources?","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"new beach","ref":"sources"},"L6U5MKFEFNHZFFEM6JZ242SUZU":{"title":"Background on the missing and murdered indigenous women in Canada","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"toward failure","ref":"MMIW"},"KIYL4OR42RCSBMQWOIUDYZ7ZZU":{"title":"Need some background on cap-and-trade?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"order of business","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"KIZW7RXBO5BB3IZEFU6NVFGC6E":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"a new agreement","ref":"nafta"},"OKNSX52VYZBOJGMN27DT4BJSNM":{"title":"What is blockchain?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on blockchain technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"blockchain technology","ref":"blockchain"},"A2CMHRWO2ZDGLAIACHYLQMADSM":{"title":"Need some background on the conflict in Syria? ","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"retaliation for that attack","ref":"Syria"},"CAN53QLRTRE3RODRVB3RR6AOKE":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"self-driving cars","ref":"tariff"},"RQTRDFLIZJHSRILUI2PW2BG3YA":{"title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?", "altTitle":"Need a refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Lower Mainland","ref":"transmountain2"},"7ZZZ5DNDX5H2JAI34BZYHBYPJU":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"products here","ref":"tariff"},"3HLEVHWH5ZGF7AEWZMQQIAOZPU":{"time":"75","title":"Need some background on the Uyghurs?","text":"The largely-Muslim \x3cstrong\x3eUyghur\x3c/strong\x3e people (pronounced \u201cWEE-gur\u201d) have faced conflict with the People\u2019s Republic of China for decades.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nMost of them live in the \x3cstrong\x3eXinjiang\x3c/strong\x3e region in northwest China, a huge territory that comprises a sixth of the country\u2019s landmass

After briefly declaring independence in the 1940s they were brought under Chinese communist rule; and the Chinese government for decades has encouraged the Han-Chinese majority population to settle in that region

Today, Han make up 40 per cent of the population, compared to 46 per cent for Uyghurs

Xinjiang is rich in natural resources, with the largest fossil energy reserves in the country and substantial wind and solar potential

Uyghurs, however, have long complained that local development has unequally employed and enriched the Han population

Separatist sentiment among the Uyghurs has been met with crackdowns, including police surveillance and limitations on expressions of their Muslim faith that do not apply to many other Muslim groups in China.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nSome Uyghurs have joined terrorist groups in Syria and Afghanistan, and the Chinese government has accused Uyghur extremists of carrying out terrorist attacks in China

Since 2017, foreign scholars and news organizations have documented the existence (denied by some Chinese officials) of \x3cstrong\x3ere-education facilities\x3c/strong\x3e where it has been estimated that hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs have been sent for political indoctrination and Chinese-language instruction

These facilities have been likened to internment camps and have been the focus of human rights concerns

Beijing has justified its measures in Xinjiang as an effort to counter radicalization, and government documents have likened re-education to a public health campaign to counter-act extremism.", "refVal":"Uyghurs","altTitle":"Who are the Uyghurs?","textLine":"forcibly indoctrinated"},"FKD2DYKDQREUXGG23E3FMJXNZM":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence?","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"credit scores","ref":"ai_old3"},"R25ZLEQQ4RGPRITOBYKBNEQQOU":{"title":"Need some background on the environmental impact of food waste?","altTitle":"Why is food waste a problem for the environment?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"potato flavour", "ref":"FoodWaste"},"S3OBLBGKT5AWPDUGIKU67HPYYU":{"title":"Need some background on the Uyghurs?","altTitle":"Who are the Uyghurs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"scores of Uyghurs","ref":"Uyghurs"},"62BB7D6OMFHUDF2FCP6E5B3ATI":{"title":"How do tariffs work?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"sleeper issue","ref":"tariff"},"ZROF35EUTFB7LFRZXW6G7W24RQ":{"title":"What is 5G?","altTitle":"Need some background on 5G?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"5G","ref":"5G"},"EVZRC6EKERB7NKRH4WLVAOHBDY":{"title":"Need some background on cap-and-trade?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"in 2017","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"DODC6T356VANBIGF2RZT7OMA64":{"title":"Need some background on artificial intelligence?","altTitle":"What is artificial intelligence?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"local newspapers", "ref":"ai_old3"},"MU4CO7JJ55E77MKV6WOMXAYAUY":{"title":"Need some background on supply management? ","altTitle":"What is supply management? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"farmers in Quebec","ref":"supply"},"A4NLBX2B55F4BCU5ASX2Y2QOBI":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"by Donald Trump","ref":"tariff"},"RHIF2QABURCU5GDNS7USC5H6EM":{"title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Trans Mountain","ref":"transmountain2"},"BCEQOZATM5BX7MRGRL3SJX2QZQ":{"title":"Need some background on the G7?","altTitle":"What is the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"last November","ref":"G7"},"VSBHZ4TDLBFW7MGDDIAXCWYQIY":{"time":"60","title":"Need some background on the Rohingya?","text":"The \x3cstrong\x3eRohingya\x3c/strong\x3e are a largely-Muslim group of people who have lived primarily in what is now the western Rakhine state of Myanmar, formerly named Burma

With a population of roughly one-million, they have been called the world\u2019s most persecuted minority, their very existence a matter of dispute

Myanmar authorities call them Bengalis, Bangladeshis who have settled illegally

Rohingya say they have lived in their homes for centuries; some research suggests their history in the area can be traced back more than 1,000 years

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\n\x3cstrong\x3eWhat is the source of their crisis?\x3c/strong\x3e In the early years after Burma\u2019s independence in 1948, Rohingya occupied positions of influence

However, conflict is longstanding between Rohingya and the Buddhists who make up the Burmese majority

As early as 1942, an estimated 22,000 Rohingya fled after riots erupted

Military evictions in 1978 and 1991 led hundreds of thousands to escape to neighbouring Bangladesh

Each time, most Rohingya returned to Myanmar, although to increasingly harsh circumstances

A 1982 law formally denied Rohingya full citizenship

Fiercely nationalist monks have elevated fears that the Muslim group portends the destruction of Myanmar\u2019s Buddhist society, and local grievances have frequently turned violent

", "refVal":"Rohingya","altTitle":"Who are the Rohingya?","textLine":"not fools","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eIf the conflict is longstanding, why has it been in the news so much more often in recent years?\x3c/strong\x3e In 2012, tens of thousands of Rohingya were placed in temporary shelter following sectarian fighting; those shelters have since become sprawling internment camps

In 2016, a group called the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army, or ARSA, attacked three Myanmar police outposts, killed nine officers, and released a statement citing \u201cvarious crimes and atrocities committed against the Rohingya.\u201d ARSA struck again in August of 2017, a coordinated attack on security outposts

The country\u2019s military responded with a fierce crackdown that, Rohingya have said, included shooting children, raping women and burning homes

More than 700,000 Rohingya have since fled to Bangladesh, where some now live in the world\u2019s largest single refugee camp."}]}, "5JWELTRNR5FDDD2E5EPEGBOMXM":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"25 per cent tariff","ref":"tariff"},"KJZ6JVIXZZBRFPPRIGUUAWZBDE":{"title":"Some background on tariffs","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"can be avoided","ref":"tariff"},"ROGSTCTWSVFXDEOUJA75SC63TY":{"title":"Background on Trans Mountain","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"RCMP detachment","ref":"transmountain2"},"Y7YGQVASJRELTCAUK2WHXGU4QU":{"title":"Background on tariffs","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"U.S

vehicles","ref":"tariff"},"FY6TBMZ2FND6HJA5WZQ2AVSJIY":{"title":"Some background on NAFTA","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"back home","ref":"nafta"},"V23KK5IT6NFVLEJWW5XTHFAMHE":{"title":"What is vaping and how do e-cigarettes work?", "altTitle":"A quick backgrounder on vaping and how e-cigarettes work","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"smoking-cessation tool","ref":"vaping"},"RVXD5IYB4ZHEZOCMRZIDGBGODI":{"title":"Some background on tariffs","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"soybeans to coal","ref":"tariff"},"CIIFOJYLDRHOJLTIJ5UULQ3LXE":{"title":"A quick refresher on tariffs","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"buy Canadian","ref":"tariff"},"NNZ4SMYXANHRRM25GB7YTP2LAU":{"title":"A quick refresher on cap and trade","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap and trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"change framework","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"KUQGZPWECFHO3DVW2K3IQ6QK4I":{"title":"What is the role of a special counsel? ","altTitle":"Need some background on the role of a special counsel?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Robert Mueller","ref":"SpecialCounsel"}, "MUHUWU33ERE4HN4QZBXPUY544I":{"title":"Some background on the Rohingya","altTitle":"Who are the Rohingya?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"as sacrilege","ref":"Rohingya"},"AV7XONXSBZFC3HITOPEUQVT6RA":{"title":"What is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","altTitle":"Some context on the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"influx of asylum","ref":"asylum"}, "KX46CLLOWNFK5NCBLZPIGYAMEE":{"title":"Some background on the West Bank and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the West Bank and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"late May","ref":"westbank_only"},"5D4LNJVFYNDKPGJFHOHLEVSHRE":{"title":"Why is Canada joining the peacekeeping mission in Mali?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Canada\u2019s role in the peacekeeping mission in Mali?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"support to the UN","ref":"Mali_peacekeeping"},"OUTUA3FLW5HYLCJIO7I3OUU5DY":{"title":"Some background on the increased flow of asylum seekers crossing the Canada-U.S

border","altTitle":"What is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Canada-U.S

border","ref":"asylum"},"BK4JI24DXBGBLI4JAT3ACTSUEA":{"title":"What is AI?","altTitle":"A refresher on AI technology","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"IP terms","ref":"ai_old3"},"OHSY46ULGNA3PB66JETBNEB4NA":{"title":"Need some background on the Russia probe?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Russia probe?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"a witch hunt","ref":"Russia"},"R7JPFZKMRBGK7AGQSSHLTBEJGY":{"title":"Why is Mali in crisis?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the crisis in Mali?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"other rebel groups","ref":"Mali_crisis"},"KVNHNNUV75H4ZLNY4MXVRAKZZM":{"title":"Background on the increased flow of asylum seekers crossing the Canada-U.S

border", "altTitle":"What is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"services and shelters","ref":"asylum"},"UHDODHFOIFHKVBGT4PWR32T3EU":{"title":"What is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","altTitle":"Some context on the increased flow of asylum seekers crossing the Canada-U.S

border","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"on the matter","ref":"asylum"}, "266EOJIWKJCVPJUV6Q65SIVR6M":{"title":"Some context on tariffs","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"lobsters","ref":"tariff"},"A5ZDBVMWXFHAFMFRLPUXPISWSQ":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence? Is it different from machine learning? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on AI and machine learning?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"family dog","ref":"ai_old"},"QSWTLKYJFBH5TIBHKYLTEWHPAI":{"title":"Need some background on AI and machine learning?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on AI and machine learning?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Swapnil","ref":"ai_old"},"ACKUV4EQ7NH67I4NUV7L667BOM":{"title":"Some context on NAFTA","altTitle":"A quick refresher on NAFTA","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"NAFTA","ref":"nafta"},"7FOXCF3ZAFAWVGCG7LABHJRXOA":{"title":"Some background on the conflict in Syria","altTitle":"Need a catch-up on the conflict in Syria?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"further gains","ref":"Syria"},"HGWR7PV7SVFT5BARYXHJHT3RLU":{"title":"What is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","altTitle":"Need some context on the increased flow of asylum seekers crossing the Canada-U.S

border?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"leadership on the issue","ref":"asylum"},"SXI47YAPEVHWLEEAS4LT4XZHSM":{"title":"Some background on cryptocurrencies, or digital tokens","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"tokens or coins","ref":"crypto_only"},"S5U24KTOONHRPO3AA3MIFCGRRM":{"title":"Need some background on artificial intelligence and machine learning? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence and machine learning? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Heart Research","ref":"ai_old"},"GTPWL7YSMBFQRK3YR3U2AFZRBA":{"title":"Some background on artificial intelligence","altTitle":"Need a refresher on artificial intelligence?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"bad photo","ref":"ai_old3"},"MOTSOCIX7BHG3K7J37AKASQYX4":{"title":"Some background on tariffs","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"costs of tariffs","ref":"tariff"},"N2FXQC6DR5FYZOHSYND36ELKQ4":{"time":"30","title":"What is inflation?","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eInflation\x3c/strong\x3e is a term for prices of consumer goods going up \u2013 which in turn, means that the buying power of the money in your wallet is falling

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nThe \x3cstrong\x3e\u201crate of inflation\u201d\x3c/strong\x3e is just the annual percentage by which prices are rising, and it is important because it\u2019s a proven gauge of the strength of the overall economy

For that reason a country\u2019s central bank usually monitors inflation closely and may respond by either slowing it down or speeding it up

(Both, because there are downsides to too much inflation and too little.) \n", "refVal":"inflation","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on inflation?","textLine":"inflation","more":[{"text":"Here, the \x3cstrong\x3eBank of Canada\x3c/strong\x3e is the central bank; in the U.S., it\u2019s the Federal Reserve, or \u201cthe Fed.\u201d When there are indications of too much inflation, the Bank of Canada may choose to raise the interest it charges to other banks to borrow money \u2013 which can influence a rise in interest rates across the market, which can put a damper on inflation

That\u2019s because, when it becomes more expensive to borrow money, spending slows (for example, you might be less inclined to take out that mortgage and buy that house; the same goes for businesses borrowing money to spend on projects)

In turn, that slows down economic growth \u2013 which can be a good thing, because too much inflation can mean the economy is growing too fast for things like wages, and the value of people\u2019s savings, to keep up."}]}, "2BTUSJEIXVDYJODQKEZ4RU3OEY":{"time":"45","title":"Need some context on carbon pricing? ","text":"In 2018, the federal government announced legislation that would require every province in Canada to implement a \x3cstrong\x3ecarbon-pricing\x3c/strong\x3e system by 2019

The move follows a commitment to greenhouse gas reduction targets that the Trudeau government signed at the Paris climate conference in 2015; since then it has faced resistance to a national carbon-pricing framework from some provinces, particularly Saskatchewan and more recently Ontario following the election of Doug Ford as premier.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nCarbon pricing can take a couple of forms.\n", "refVal":"carbon_pricing","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on carbon pricing? ","textLine":"transfer payments","more":[{"text":"A \x3cstrong\x3ecap-and-trade\x3c/strong\x3e system sets a limit on the amount of carbon that companies are permitted to burn when operating in the territory where the system is in place

It also offers the option for companies to buy the right to burn more than their quota, by purchasing permits (also known as carbon credits) from companies that burn less

By doing that, they exchange their right to emit greenhouse gases; that\u2019s the \u201ctrade\u201d part

The government also makes money on those permits, since it runs the auctions for them."}, {"text":"Cap-and-trade is not the same thing as a \x3cstrong\x3ecarbon tax\x3c/strong\x3e, which makes companies and consumers pay for every tonne of carbon burned \u2013 just like drivers pay by the litre to burn gas in their cars, but at a larger scale

Both a carbon tax and cap-and-trade have the same goal: to give companies a financial incentive to reduce their emissions

They just go about it differently."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho does cap-and-trade in Canada?\x3c/strong\x3e Quebec has had a system in place since 2013, and later joined up with California so that credits could be traded between those territories

Ontario implemented its system last year, and committed to joining Quebec and California in future auctions

Doug Ford has vowed to scrap this plan."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho has a carbon tax?\x3c/strong\x3e British Columbia, since 2008; and Alberta, since 2017."}]},"IXGHWJQ5O5GSTK4BU5W65PW4BY":{"title":"Need some background on Colombia's peace deal?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Colombia's peace deal? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Forces of Colombia","ref":"FARC"},"WUTSOUMBD5DDLKCOE6FFRBEWEU":{"time":"60","title":"Some background on Facebook's privacy crisis","text":"Cambridge Analytica was a \x3cstrong\x3epolitical research company\x3c/strong\x3e based in London, England

It was co-founded by Steve Bannon -- former executive chairman of right-wing website Breitbart News and former adviser to U.S

president Donald Trump -- and Canadian-born data analyst Christopher Wylie

In 2018, four years after leaving the company, Mr

Wylie became a whistleblower, revealing to journalists how Cambridge Analytica used Facebook to gather the personal information of millions of people without their consent, in 2014

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n \nCambridge Analytica used its expertise in data harvesting and in analysis of behavioural trends, to win clients interested in using that data to create \x3cstrong\x3etargeted advertising\x3c/strong\x3e more likely sway people's opinions, particularly in political campaigns

The firm's clients included an organization called Leave.EU which campaigned in favour of Brexit, and Donald Trump's U.S

presidential election campaign

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nThe revelations have led to government investigations in the U.S

and UK

Another result was increased scrutiny of \x3cstrong\x3eFacebook\x3c/strong\x3e, which was already fielding questions about its role in spreading false or manipulative information during the U.S

election campaign, and whether it adequately protects users' privacy

Some have suggested that the social media giant should face more stringent regulations to reduce the risk of people's personal information being misused.", "refVal":"Cambridge_Analytica","altTitle":"Some context on Facebook's privacy crisis","textLine":"privacy crisis","more":[{"text":'\x3cstrong\x3eHow much data did Cambridge Analytica collect from Facebook, and how?\x3c/strong\x3e In 2013, the firm partnered with Cambridge University data scientist Aleksandr Kogan, who created a Facebook personality quiz called "thisisyourdigitallife." Roughly 270,000 people downloaded the Facebook app to take the quiz

The app\'s terms of use required those people to provide access to information on their own Facebook profiles, as well as their friends\' profiles -- including their "likes" and other personality attributes

Facebook would later report that data were collected from 87-million Facebook users globally, including more than 600,000 Canadians

Following the revelations, Cambridge Analytica announced it would shut down in May of 2018.'}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eDid Facebook allow this kind of activity?\x3c/strong\x3e At the time, Facebook did allow this kind of data gathering for research purposes; but sharing that information with another party, or using it for commercial purposes, were against Facebook's policies

Cambridge Analytica and Mr

Kogan have each blamed the other for improperly collecting the data

Facebook has said that when it found out in 2015 that such data had been shared improperly, it shut down the app and asked all parties with whom the data was shared to destroy that information

However, Facebook did not publicly disclose the breach at the time

"}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eHow much did this influence the U.S

presidential campaign and the Brexit vote?\x3c/strong\x3e Cambridge Analytica used the data to determine how to target voters and influence them

How much of an impact it had is still not entirely clear

"}]},"TIDLTWP3N5EUPDGJ6FVJJ4EUJA":{"title":"Need some context on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"companies with interest","ref":"tariff"},"FZ5G7MTHJVBKNJ5WYC2U6NJWH4":{"title":"Need some background on how 5G works?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"fast enough","ref":"5G"},"NSEPDOPLVVH53DQEBBHT6MBSEA":{"title":"Need some background on the Rohingya?","altTitle":"Who are the Rohingya?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Bangladesh","ref":"Rohingya"},"H65A4ZUVJRCI7DFFUFMRW42I7Y":{"title":"Need some background on the conflict in Syria? ","altTitle":"Need a catch-up on the conflict in Syria?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"surrender deal","ref":"Syria"},"2NRY3FWO3VBRFFNL4XEBQ7ASNA":{"time":"25","title":"What is the significance of the Golan Heights? ","text":"The \x3cstrong\x3eGolan Heights\x3c/strong\x3e forms Israel\u2019s land border with Syria

Though the Golan is internationally recognized as part of Syria, it has been under Israeli occupation since 1967

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nMany residents there are Druze \u2013 an offshoot of Shia Islam \u2013 and consider themselves to be Syrians

Unlike Gaza and the West Bank, the Golan is not central to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict; rather, it is about military strategy and agriculture

The Golan is strategically valuable as a vantage point over the surrounding areas

It is also an important source of water in the region.", "refVal":"Golan","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the significance of the Golan Heights?","textLine":"Golan"},"QYZJ7MNVDBFNJFXBDMP5F3S2ZI":{"title":"What is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","altTitle":"Need some context on the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"federal support","ref":"asylum"},"7XJR2AVFOJBXLLJWA4ZCCHKFKA":{"title":"Need some background on the softwood lumber dispute?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the dispute over softwood lumber?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"softwood","ref":"softwood"},"M2FSFHOF2JFYRHV6BV35A2QBGE":{"title":"Some context on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy","altTitle":"A quick refresher on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"benchmark","ref":"BankofCanada"},"2EL5ADM2KZAZNEBY2HB4OR2654":{"title":"Some background on the Uyghurs", "altTitle":"Who are the Uyghurs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"assimilate","ref":"Uyghurs"},"HUXQS7GGUVE3RPLEHM2GZKG2HA":{"time":"70","title":"Some background on the Bombardier-Gupta jet deal ","text":"The \x3cstrong\x3eGupta family\x3c/strong\x3e are three brothers from India who allegedly used political connections to build a business empire in South Africa

They fled South Africa in 2018 in the face of corruption charges.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \nThe family received a US$41-million loan from \x3cstrong\x3eExport Development Canada (EDC)\x3c/strong\x3e, a deal that has raised serious questions about oversight

EDC is a bank owned by the Canadian government that provides insurance and financing to help Canadian businesses compete in the global marketplace

In this case, EDC assisted Montreal-based \x3cstrong\x3eBombardier\x3c/strong\x3e, which among other things sells private jets (a notoriously competitive market)

To help Bombardier sell a luxury jet to the Guptas, EDC agreed in 2014 to loan the money, which represented 80 per cent of the purchase price, to the family

EDC claims the Guptas defaulted on that loan (meaning they failed to make payments and violated other terms of the loan agreement) and is trying to repossess the jet.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nThe deal has raised eyebrows, because the Guptas were already the subject of corruption allegations and investigations at the time

Export Development Canada has expressed concerns that the jet could be used for criminal activities, damaging EDC\u2019s reputation

Larger questions have been raised about whether the deal is proof that EDC is insufficiently regulated to prevent it doing business with people or companies engaged in corruption \u2013 and paying out some of the profits from corruption-linked activities to Canada\u2019s government.\n", "refVal":"Bombardier_Gupta","altTitle":"Some context on the Bombardier-Gupta jet deal ","textLine":"jet sale","more":[{"text":"The Guptas\u2019 political ties are significant

For example, investigations by South African officials have found that the Guptas wielded influence over the former Zuma government, including in cabinet appointments

Both Mr

Zuma and the Guptas have denied this."},{"text":"The Guptas ignored a judge\u2019s ruling to ground the Bombardier plane; it has now been grounded but the family still refuses to hand over the jet

Complicating the story is the fact that at the time of the jet\u2019s purchase, Bombardier was vying for part of a US$1.2-billion locomotive contract in South Africa; the Gupta brothers\u2019 connections would give them influence over that deal

Bombardier has denied that the loan for the jet had anything to do with the locomotive deal."}]}, "P37NT5RVHNGZ7BETKH3HYLK4CM":{"title":"Some background on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy","altTitle":"A quick refresher on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Bank of Canada","ref":"BankofCanada"},"HKQ2WKOP4NGGPJT7S4TTFDKQQ4":{"title":"Some background on the Rohingya","altTitle":"Who are the Rohingya?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"crackdown began","ref":"Rohingya"},"KISYNZEXNZHVBNX5EQDJXEIUK4":{"title":"Some background on NAFTA", "altTitle":"A quick refresher on NAFTA","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"North American","ref":"nafta"},"SBW6IM42YZEMTPRXZ7VSFOY6MA":{"title":"Some background on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees","altTitle":"A quick refresher on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Great White","ref":"TimHortons"},"6366UMQZ6ZGNJBWZYRBB26KQ6A":{"title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?","altTitle":"Need some context on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"U.S

market","ref":"transmountain2"},"SFJA73KX7VBWFFXM6MWL6Y2II4":{"title":"Some context on interest rates and what they say about the economy","altTitle":"A quick refresher on interest rates and what they say about the economy","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"September and July","ref":"Interest_rates"},"GGXHAOZCDRFEPHXODYEE76ONMQ":{"time":"65","title":"Why do Canadians and Americans call it soccer, and not football?", "text":"Popular wisdom has it that \x3cstrong\x3e\u201csoccer\u201d\x3c/strong\x3e is the improper, Americanized moniker for the most popular sport in the world

That\u2019s partly true: the word did originate in the sport's birthplace, England, to distinguish it from rugby football \u2013 but has not been regularly in use there for some time.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nBoth sports came about at roughly the same time

The rules of soccer, or association football, were codified in 1863, at a series of meetings in a bar in London\u2019s Covent Garden district

At that time, rugby football became known as rugby or \u201crugger,\u201d while association football was sometimes shortened to \u201csoccer\u201d (from the \u201csoc\u201d in \u201cassociation.) Still, \u201cfootball\u201d was the dominant term there; and while \u201csoccer\u201d appeared in British newspapers with some regularity as recently as the \u201860s and \u201870s, most people have always called it football.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n \nThat habit was reinforced thanks to the disdain among British devotees of the sport for the American use of \u201csoccer.\u201d The \x3cstrong\x3eAmerican version of football\x3c/strong\x3e has its roots in rugby

(The CFL\u2019s Grey Cup trophy began in 1909 as the award for the top team in the Canadian Rugby Union.) As that sport\u2019s popularity grew in Canada and the U.S., particularly in the \u201870s and \u201880s, \u201cfootball\u201d took on a different connotation here, while \u201csoccer\u201d was used to refer to association football

In England, the idea that \u201csoccer\u201d is an improper term for the beautiful game took hold.", "refVal":"soccer_football","altTitle":"Some background on why people in Canada and the U.S

call it soccer, not football","textLine":"second","more":[{"text":"The U.S

and Canada aren\u2019t the only ones who call it soccer: \x3cstrong\x3eAustralians\x3c/strong\x3e also use the word, while \u201cfootball\u201d more commonly refers to Australian Rules Football

In \x3cstrong\x3eSouth Africa\x3c/strong\x3e, where rugby is extremely popular, \u201csoccer\u201d is also used

The same goes for media references in \x3cstrong\x3eIreland\x3c/strong\x3e, to distinguish soccer from Gaelic Football (although the governing body for soccer there is The Football Association of Ireland.) "}, {"text":'Many \x3cstrong\x3enon-English-speaking countries\x3c/strong\x3e adopted an approximation of the original name, including f\u00fatbol, futebol, fodbold, or simply, foot

Even in many countries where the local language has a different term for the game, "football" has become a universal shorthand term.'}]},"KQ4PNVYQCZGPNFOXYL4ZONUVLY":{"title":"Need some background on artificial intelligence?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"artificial","ref":"ai_old3"},"PGK3UGZANBBFFOBGSFBC36675A":{"title":"What is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","altTitle":"Some context on the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Refugee Convention","ref":"asylum"},"CVEXNNTMURF5DDKLFWWNFUSMVQ":{"time":"70","title":"Need some background on the role of Export Development Canada? ","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eExport Development Canada\x3c/strong\x3e is a bank, but with a very specific focus \u2013 no ATMs or chequing accounts here

Its mandate is to help Canadian businesses compete globally, and to encourage Canadian exports

To do that, it offers insurance and loans to Canadian companies and their customers overseas

That could mean anything from loaning money to a small retailer to expand their e-commerce presence beyond our borders, or helping to finance a Canadian mining project abroad.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \nEDC is a Crown corporation (owned by the federal government) and has been around for more than 80 years

It\u2019s one of the world\u2019s biggest export development banks, with more than $60-billion in assets

The EDC falls under the oversight of the Minister of International Trade; however, critics have questioned whether there is sufficient \x3cstrong\x3escrutiny\x3c/strong\x3e over its operations.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \nQuestions about EDC\u2019s accountability came to the fore in 2017 when The Globe and Mail revealed that EDC had provided a US$41-million loan to help the South African Gupta family purchase a jet from Canadian company \x3cstrong\x3eBombardier\x3c/strong\x3e

The Guptas, who have close ties to former South African president Jacob Zuma, fled the country in 2018 in the face of corruption charges

EDC has said the Gupta dispute is an isolated incident

A 2018 report argued EDC operates in a \u201cweak regulatory environment\u201d and lacks adequate screening to ensure it is not financially involved with corrupt businesses.", "refVal":"EDC","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the role of Export Development Canada? ","textLine":"Export Development Canada","more":[{"text":"There are limits to what we can know about EDC

It is subject to Access to Information laws, but the legislation that governs EDC makes an important exception: EDC does not have to disclose any information about a client without the client\u2019s consent

EDC publishes quarterly and annual financial reports, but these do not include details such as the dollar amount on loans it has made or interest rates it charges on those loans

EDC pays back a share of its profits to the Canadian government every year, to the tune of hundreds of millions of dollars

Because it is self-sustaining, it does not rely on government funding; however, its loans are government-backed, so it is taxpayer-supported in that sense."}]}, "EVBQ23BBXNAEHHFK2XI7XYF5QE":{"title":"Some background on the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border","altTitle":"Some context on the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"wait and see","ref":"asylum"},"DKGNG4MWSBDN3DNX4CUZTRYCSE":{"title":"Some background on market indexes like the Nikkei and FTSE, and why they matter","altTitle":"Some context on market indexes like the Nikkei and FTSE, and why they matter", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"cents","ref":"MarketIndex"},"DBAXA42MCVDSNA6IEOTTEZI7CI":{"title":"Some background on vaping and how it works","altTitle":"Some context on vaping and how it works","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"vape cannabis","ref":"vaping2"},"IFHKVDNEPVHGPOKU7G5IPU3NDQ":{"title":"Some background on the role of a special counsel","altTitle":"Some context on the role of a special counsel","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Mueller", "ref":"SpecialCounsel"},"FMQWDX444BDM5P763BAIIWKQVU":{"title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Trans Mountain","ref":"transmountain2"},"ZCJSXASIXZENZEGUKE3XUVMQIU":{"title":"Some context on artificial intelligence","altTitle":"What is artificial intelligence?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"red flags","ref":"ai_old3"},"V2X2CWQFS5C2FCTVW3ZM2K5LME":{"title":"What are cryptocurrencies and how do they work? ", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"cryptocurrencies","ref":"crypto_only"},"A5XXNVA5VBHEXKSWG6TJRK3PKU":{"title":"A quick refresher on the Russia investigation","altTitle":"Some background on the Russia investigation","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Russian meddling","ref":"Russia"},"Q3IFOOWEFFH73H72T2MXR3UAKA":{"title":"Some context on tariffs","altTitle":"A quick refresher on tariffs", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"tariff","ref":"tariff"},"VCSAW2KZHFBWDN2OG6XCF5G3FI":{"title":"Why do Canadians and Americans call it soccer, and not football?","altTitle":"Some background on why people in Canada and the U.S

call it soccer, not football","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"semifinal match","ref":"soccer_football"},"SQXTARBFLZBTFDK2IXI47TCPRA":{"title":"Need some background on the Russia investigation?","altTitle":"Need a quick catch-up on the Russia investigation? ", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"obstructed justice","ref":"Russia"},"LQKBOKEO2VFATCUZBYDBIAEMQA":{"title":"Some background on cryptocurrencies","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"cases of fraud","ref":"crypto_only"},"JI5E2W52VZEMXECXBFF7QJGBIM":{"title":"Some background on cap and trade","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap and trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"cap-and-trade system","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"EEE2IBMDQZACZINYLPJV6LNT2U":{"title":"Some background on the Cambridge Analytica scandal","altTitle":"Some context on the Cambridge Analytica scandal","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Analytica scandal","ref":"Cambridge_Analytica"},"4BWEFVCY6FHUFJV5XMOXVGB4AU":{"title":"Some context on tariffs","altTitle":"Some background on tariffs","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"final decision","ref":"tariff"}, "VR2UL2FHSZE3TMFEGH7CGBWI7A":{"title":"Some background on the Cambridge Analytica scandal","altTitle":"Some context on the Cambridge Analytica scandal","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"in Britain","ref":"Cambridge_Analytica"},"XPKNO5UBMZBCPFTJG2VV7TMYBU":{"title":"Some background on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy","altTitle":"A quick refresher on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"overnight rate", "ref":"BankofCanada"},"6IOMCR7NXBCGPNYX7EC453PPKE":{"time":"40","title":"Some background on free trade","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eFree trade\x3c/strong\x3e, in general, allows for an easier flow of goods and labour across international borders

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nRestrictions on products crossing borders \u2013 which free trade removes \u2013 can include \x3cstrong\x3etariffs\x3c/strong\x3e (a fee a country charges at the border on products coming in from other countries \u2013 making it more expensive for foreign companies to trade there than homegrown ones); \x3cstrong\x3equotas\x3c/strong\x3e (limits on the amount of a certain kind of product that a country allows across its border) or \x3cstrong\x3esubsidies\x3c/strong\x3e (any kind of support that helps a certain sector to compete.) But a free trade agreement does not necessarily mean that all restrictions are removed; it varies from deal to deal

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nFree trade deals can be \x3cstrong\x3ebilateral\x3c/strong\x3e (i.e

between two countries) or \x3cstrong\x3emultilateral\x3c/strong\x3e (among many jurisdictions; NAFTA and the CPTPP \u2013 formerly the TPP \u2013 are examples of this.)", "refVal":"free_trade","altTitle":"Some context on free trade","textLine":"such tariffs","more":[{"text":"Most of the focus over the years has been on reducing/eliminating tariffs, but most countries (including Canada) maintain a collection of \x3cstrong\x3enon-tariff barriers\x3c/strong\x3e, which can be as simple as requiring imports to adhere to certain regulatory standards that serve to raise the cost and time to import them."},{"text":"The \x3cstrong\x3eprinciple behind free trade\x3c/strong\x3e, at its most basic, is that opening up more global markets to easier trade will stimulate economic growth; and that it will reduce the cost of goods for consumers."}]}, "B7YLTAQMLFBQZEPJVCG2VHKWT4":{"title":"Need some more background on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?","altTitle":"Need a quick catch-up on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"lawsuits","ref":"TimHortons"},"CVPWLUELF5AWTJS6M3L5IV5GUQ":{"title":"Need some background on the Cambridge Analytica scandal?","altTitle":"Need some context on the Cambridge Analytica scandal?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"discovered it","ref":"Cambridge_Analytica"},"RIVWPZKCQNBXTN63V7TAQBXNYQ":{"title":"Some background on interest rates and why they matter","altTitle":"What are interest rates and what do they say about the economy?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"brakes on growth","ref":"Interest_rates"},"5CH2O3U2SZG3ZIXTV62B74237I":{"title":"A quick refresher on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees","altTitle":"A quick catch-up on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"year earlier","ref":"TimHortons"},"BGT5EWLD6FFR7L25HHLU2477I4":{"title":"Some context on interest rates and why they matter","altTitle":"Some background on interest rates and why they matter","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"2008","ref":"Interest_rates"},"C6D4WKUQSVGG7ICUSQZJKDMYEM":{"title":"Need some background on Cambridge Analytica's use of Facebook data?","altTitle":"Need some context on Cambridge Analytica's use of Facebook data?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"consulting firm","ref":"Cambridge_Analytica"},"PVNM7CDMRND77KFZHIRY6Q62U4":{"title":"Why does inflation matter?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on inflation?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"slam dunk","ref":"inflation"},"YZMFHXCDBRAMJC464OA3JJE5EM":{"title":"Need some context on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?","altTitle":"Need some background on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"hike","ref":"TimHortons"},"IUKZPZTSABD67N5AW4XNNIPHDI":{"title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?","altTitle":"Some background on Trans Mountain","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"their territory","ref":"transmountain2"},"5EALEUB62NEN7EGBO523XYCUU4":{"title":"Need some context on inflation?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on inflation?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"only modest","ref":"inflation"}, "SB23EIE7ZZCVJDGIUCJZYJI3UI":{"title":"Some context on tariffs","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"close itself","ref":"tariff"},"6TQ6LEADYNAHPHT2M5YQOFGLYE":{"title":"Need some background on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Bank of Canada and its role in the economy?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"up slightly","ref":"BankofCanada"},"6KRQITBMV5E5JERRA2HEZRW3TU":{"title":"Some background on interest rates", "altTitle":"What are interest rates and what do they say about the economy?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"interest rates","ref":"Interest_rates"},"GVI3BP3QABA6ZKZJOEQ4YWBVHQ":{"time":"25","title":"What is the Consumer Price Index and what does it say about the economy?","text":"The \x3cstrong\x3eConsumer Price Index\x3c/strong\x3e is a measure of whether prices in general are going up or down \u2013 and therefore, how the buying power of people\u2019s money is changing

It does this by tracking prices of a sample of commonly purchased goods and services.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \nPeople pay attention to this index because it indicates the \x3cstrong\x3erate of inflation\x3c/strong\x3e \u2013 which is the annual percentage by which prices are rising \u2013 and it is important because it\u2019s a proven gauge of the strength of the overall economy.\n", "refVal":"ConsumerPriceIndex_USemphasis","altTitle":"Need some background on the Consumer Price Index and what it says about the economy?","textLine":"volatile","more":[{"text":"When there are indications of too much inflation, a country\u2019s \x3cstrong\x3ecentral bank\x3c/strong\x3e (such as the Bank of Canada and in the U.S

the Federal Reserve or \u201cthe Fed\u201d) may choose to raise the target it sets for other banks to charge for interest across the market

"},{"text":'It influences that target by changing both the "bank rate" (the interest it charges to other banks to borrow money) and the interest it pays on any extra money those banks have deposited with the central bank overnight

When banks follow suit and raise their own rates, that can put a damper on \x3cstrong\x3einflation\x3c/strong\x3e

'}, {"text":"That\u2019s because, when it becomes more expensive to borrow money, spending slows (for example, you might be less inclined to take out that mortgage and buy that house; the same goes for businesses borrowing money to spend on projects)

In turn, that slows down economic growth \u2013 which can be a good thing, because too much inflation can mean the economy is growing too fast for things like wages, and the value of people\u2019s savings, to keep up

So the Consumer Price Index matters because it is an indicator of where the economy is headed, and may also hint at what is likely to happen with a country\u2019s monetary policy."}]}, "F4KR3CWSZ5GWLO6HI7IJSQKZG4":{"title":"Need some background on cap and trade?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap and trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"stakeholders","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"IOFXGESIAJEBVLVQPSIDHXRCH4":{"title":"Some background on initial coin offerings (ICOs)","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on initial coin offerings (ICOs)?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"documents","ref":"ICO"},"TR2WWUADC5GFLK4I23IKJ6QFAA":{"title":"Some background on cap and trade", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"wind power","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"GA457KHX7NH6RKPJPZGJFOLQJQ":{"title":"Need some background on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"imported","ref":"tariff"},"UQW2KULNBNC6DHNTHBDISDAK34":{"title":"Need some background on the G7?","altTitle":"What is the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Charlevoix", "ref":"G7"},"DODMMQA7ERFLHFPGEFR3Q3NEXI":{"title":"Need some background on cap-and-trade programs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Keenan","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"ENWGE4WAEZER7EMMENXOMSJ774":{"title":"Need some background on 5G technology?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"5G","ref":"5G"},"RX3KORIMOFDGDLVFNQTIYI62BY":{"title":"How does a carbon tax work? ", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on carbon taxes? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"carbon tax","ref":"carbontax"},"PP2AOSAKUFCGXKZCHHS6LA5VF4":{"title":"Some background on the Russia investigation","altTitle":"Some context on the Russia investigation","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Trump campaign and Russia","ref":"Russia"},"7XGQZ4QKA5AFJMRIEDRN4WGQT4":{"title":"Some context on tariffs","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"scrap the duties","ref":"tariff"},"LK2HPFMFUNA7DE66IPAYVRXDWQ":{"title":"Need some background on the Trans Mountain project?","altTitle":"Need some context on the Trans Mountain project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"threaten its coast","ref":"transmountain2"},"PEP763NZR5ERTLZFAYTJQQWV5Q":{"title":"What is the difference between cap-and-trade and a carbon tax?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade and carbon taxes? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"gasoline","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"OHC22TA65VFWVB4CNT4UABXZYQ":{"title":"Why do Canadians and Americans call it soccer, and not football?","altTitle":"Some background on why people in Canada and the U.S

call it soccer, not football","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"via ferry","ref":"soccer_football"},"25IV5BR2KJBOFFEQJ27Z3TZUFA":{"title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?","altTitle":"Some background on Trans Mountain","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"pipeline","ref":"transmountain2"},"7GINCEBYSVDPPNIMPLCU5E73KM":{"title":"Need some background on NAFTA?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"years ahead","ref":"nafta"},"NN4SI7UQBZDZBL4GJXTGFVXZTA":{"title":"Need some background on the Russia investigation?","altTitle":"Some background on the Russia investigation?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"by hacking","ref":"Russia"},"35XH4Z6CKBFRXMA6M5HOV5QIPU":{"title":"", "altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"machine learning","ref":"ai_old2"},"MNECLOUOUJA7PMKD2EYQPDLQKU":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Peter Montopoli","ref":"soccer_football"},"2BYRVMAVQVEOXDQERKDR72ZCPU":{"title":"Some background on cap and trade","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"cap-and-trade","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"WNJ5B4VIXNAGXPT5NMJUG2EYUM":{"title":"Background on the Russia investigation", "altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"presidential election","ref":"Russia"},"SLBI6MAQYRFPNJCTQXGGO2RNKY":{"title":"Need some background on the Russia investigation? ","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"colluded","ref":"Russia"},"D65QAMUGSRFITPHHVEMLXTKJBQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Free Trade","ref":"nafta"},"Q2RB5PEJ55EZBMWTJJXKIKLB3A":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"supports","ref":"asylum"},"5V3JOG5ZJNC4XE36SNMMMBCC5E":{"title":"Background on cap and trade","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"cap and trade","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"Y7K4N7VNP5AYXB62EYNNQGYBCQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"into Israel","ref":"Gaza_only"},"MO4T2MZ5ERGNLNPBINFRX6DPXE":{"title":"Background on cap and trade","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"allowances","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"VMGHMSR42VF43ISK6M5VZK7FDI":{"title":"Background on the Gaza Strip and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the Gaza Strip, and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"simmering","ref":"Gaza_only"},"B5YT3RZMFRF6RAEOWRH64LJVKI":{"title":"Some context on the Gaza Strip and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"request for comment","ref":"Gaza_only"},"4ZKMADN4TFOARGZO2F6QCVQKDU":{"title":"Background on the Russia investigation","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"staged","ref":"Russia"},"E3C2PBK77ZFZZA5BRKJIWQ3TTA":{"title":"Background on the conflict in Syria","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"60 per cent","ref":"Syria"},"GFRFDMFPUNBQPD5Y3NHXQLIHJA":{"title":"Need some context on the Gaza Strip and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?", "altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"residential","ref":"Gaza_only"},"BCX53ILHVBHEPPAJ7F3QXRB67U":{"title":"Some background on the Rohingya","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"Bangladesh","ref":"Rohingya"},"5NONKHXONVC7JDWJW474QHSFZQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"matter in Winnipeg","ref":"asylum"},"5FAFY4LXD5GCFDCN3LN3SSP6WU":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"by then","ref":"soccer_football"}};var isExplainerOpen=false,elementToScrollTo=null,actionButtonFunction,closeButtonFunction,logMessage=undefined,bigMarkupString,expandMarkupString,currentMultiExplainer=-1,mainContentId,multiInterval;document.getElementsByTagName("body")[0].addEventListener("click",function(){if(isExplainerOpen){elementToScrollTo.scrollIntoView();explainerToggle()}}); function setupExplainer(contentId,bigMarkupStringParam,expandMarkupStringParam,actnBtnFn,closeBtnFn,logMsg){mainContentId=!mainContentId?contentId:mainContentId;expandMarkupString=expandMarkupStringParam?expandMarkupStringParam:expandMarkupString;bigMarkupString=bigMarkupStringParam?bigMarkupStringParam:bigMarkupString;actionButtonFunction=actnBtnFn?actnBtnFn:actionButtonFunction;closeButtonFunction=closeBtnFn?closeBtnFn:closeButtonFunction;logMessage=logMsg?logMsg:logMessage;var idExists=false;for(var key in explainerMap)if(explainerMap.hasOwnProperty(key))if(key=== contentId)idExists=true;if(!idExists)return;else logExplainerLoad();if(Array.isArray(explainerMap[contentId].query)){multiInterval=setInterval(setupMultiExplainerWatch,300);return}if(!explainerMap[contentId].textLine)elementToScrollTo=document.getElementsByClassName("c-article-body")[0].querySelector(explainerMap[contentId].query);else if(explainerMap[contentId].textLine.length>0){var textList=document.getElementsByClassName("c-article-body__text");for(var counter=0;counterdocument.getElementById("main-content-area").offsetTop+qeOffset)targetContentId=multiExplainerParentList[counter]}if(!targetContentId)return; if(currentMultiExplainer!==targetContentId&&!isExplainerOpen){currentMultiExplainer=targetContentId;[document.getElementById("explainerActionButton"),document.getElementById("explainerToggleButton"),document.getElementById("explainerWidget"),document.getElementsByClassName("third-p-spacer")[0]].forEach(function(item){if(!item)return;else item.parentElement.removeChild(item)});setupExplainer(currentMultiExplainer)}} function explainerAction(){var actionButton=document.getElementById("explainerActionButton");if(!document.getElementsByClassName("more-div")[0].classList.contains("u-hidden")){elementToScrollTo.scrollIntoView();explainerToggle()}else{document.getElementById("readTimeSpan").classList.add("u-hidden");analyticsLayer.push({"event":"clickEvent","clickEvent":{"testId":"des838","feature":"explainer expanded","action":"explainer expanded","type":"test","label":"article explainer"}});var moreElements=document.getElementsByClassName("more-div"); for(var i=0;i1){document.getElementsByClassName("list-grid")[0].classList.remove("u-hidden"); targetList.classList.remove("u-hidden")}else{analyticsLayer.push({"event":"clickEvent","clickEvent":{"testId":"des738","feature":targetListClass,"action":targetListClass+" not loaded","type":"test","label":"wine-list"}});document.getElementsByClassName("list-grid")[0].setAttribute("style","display: block;");if(targetList.classList.contains("list-other-wines"))document.getElementsByClassName("list-similar-wines")[0].classList.add("force-wide-list");else document.getElementsByClassName("list-other-wines")[0].classList.add("force-wide-list")}} function setupWineWidget(){var guidArray=document.cookie.split(";").filter(function(item){return item.indexOf("gtm_u_info")>=0});if(guidArray.length<1){console.log("gtm not present");return false}var guid=guidArray[0].split("\x3d")[1].split("%")[0];if(guid.length<32){console.log("improper guid length");return false}var shouldShow=false;for(var counter=0;counter
In the late 1990s, he also wrote a food ...";descriptionDiv.classList.add("description-div","text-grid-desc");descriptionDiv.classList.add("text-grid-desc");newNode.appendChild(pictureDiv);newNode.appendChild(headerTextDiv);newNode.appendChild(buttonDiv); newNode.appendChild(descriptionDiv);return newNode} function createNewWineLists(){var newNodeLists=document.createElement("div");newNodeLists.classList.add("list-grid");newNodeLists.classList.add("beppi-review");newNodeLists.classList.add("u-hidden");var otherWinesDiv=document.createElement("div");otherWinesDiv.classList.add("list-other-wines");otherWinesDiv.classList.add("u-hidden");var otherWinesHeadingDiv=document.createElement("div");otherWinesHeadingDiv.classList.add("o-related-articles__heading");otherWinesHeadingDiv.innerText="other wines at this price point"; otherWinesDiv.appendChild(otherWinesHeadingDiv);var similarWinesDiv=document.createElement("div");similarWinesDiv.classList.add("list-similar-wines");similarWinesDiv.classList.add("u-hidden");var similarWinesHeadingDiv=document.createElement("div");similarWinesHeadingDiv.classList.add("o-related-articles__heading");similarWinesHeadingDiv.innerText="you might also like";similarWinesDiv.appendChild(similarWinesHeadingDiv);var availWarningDiv=document.createElement("div");availWarningDiv.classList.add("list-avail-warning"); var availWarningSpan=document.createElement("span");availWarningSpan.classList.add("avail-warning-text");availWarningSpan.innerText="Note: Some wines are no longer available for purchase";availWarningDiv.appendChild(availWarningSpan);newNodeLists.appendChild(otherWinesDiv);newNodeLists.appendChild(similarWinesDiv);newNodeLists.appendChild(availWarningDiv);return newNodeLists} function createExplainerPoster(){var newNode=document.createElement("div");newNode.classList.add("ebook-box");newNode.classList.add("beppi-review");newNode.classList.add("u-hidden");var key_svg='\x3cspan class\x3d"c-indicator-icon" aria-label\x3d"Subscriber content"\x3e\x3cspan class\x3d"u-visually-hidden"\x3eSubscriber content\x3c/span\x3e\x3csvg class\x3d"c-indicator-icon__art c-indicator-icon__art--key" role\x3d"img" pointer-events\x3d"none" focusable\x3d"false" aria-hidden\x3d"true"\x3e\x3cuse xlink:href\x3d"/pb/resources/assets/img/tgam-patterns/sprite.svg?token\x3d\' + tgam.env.cacheToken + \'#icon-key"\x3e\x3c/use\x3e\x3c/svg\x3e\x3c/span\x3e'; var ebookTextDiv=document.createElement("div");ebookTextDiv.classList.add("ebook-text");var ebookTextHeading=document.createElement("span");ebookTextHeading.classList.add("ebook-text-heading");ebookTextHeading.innerText="explainer";var ebookTextTitle=document.createElement("a");ebookTextTitle.setAttribute("href","#");ebookTextTitle.classList.add("ebook-text-title");ebookTextTitle.innerHTML="\x3cspan\x3eThe Ultimate Grape Glossary: Beppi Crosariol\u2019s guide to hip varietals \x3c/span\x3e";ebookTextTitle.insertAdjacentHTML("beforeEnd", key_svg);ebookTextDiv.appendChild(ebookTextHeading);ebookTextDiv.appendChild(ebookTextTitle);var ebookPictureDiv=document.createElement("div");var ebookPicture=document.createElement("img");ebookPicture.setAttribute("alt","grapes for wine making");ebookPicture.setAttribute("src","https://arc-anglerfish-tgam-sandbox-sandbox-tgam.s3.amazonaws.com/public/XMJDRL5BE5FL5E7ITWTOIZM6I4.jpg");ebookPicture.classList.add("ebook-picture-size");ebookPictureDiv.appendChild(ebookPicture);if(screen.width<=600)ebookPicture.clientHeight= Math.floor(ebookPicture.clientWidth*2/3);ebookPictureDiv.classList.add("ebook-picture-div");ebookPictureDiv.addEventListener("click",function(evt){window.location.href="#"});newNode.appendChild(ebookTextDiv);newNode.appendChild(ebookPictureDiv);return newNode} function createSignupPoster(){var newNode=document.createElement("div");newNode.classList.add("signup-box");newNode.classList.add("u-hidden");var signupLogoDiv=document.createElement("div");signupLogoDiv.classList.add("signup-logo");signupLogoDiv.innerHTML="\x3cspan\x3eWine\x3c/span\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\x3cspan\x3e\x26 Spirits\x3c/span\x3e";var signupTextDiv=document.createElement("div");signupTextDiv.innerText="Receive Beppi Crosariol\u2019s column, wine and spirits reviews and more, directly to your inbox each week."; signupTextDiv.classList.add("signup-text");var signupButtonHTML='\x3cbutton class\x3d"c-button width-increase" type\x3d"button"\x3e\x3cspan class\x3d"c-button__text"\x3e\x3csvg class\x3d"c-indicator-icon__art " role\x3d"img" pointer-events\x3d"none" focusable\x3d"false" aria-hidden\x3d"true" style\x3d"fill: #7F7F7F;margin-right: 1rem;display: inline;vertical-align:bottom;"\x3e\x3cuse xlink:href\x3d"/pb/resources/assets/img/tgam-patterns/sprite.svg?token\x3d'+tgam.env.cacheToken+'#icon-email"\x3e\x3c/use\x3e\x3c/svg\x3esign up\x3c/span\x3e\x3c/button\x3e'; var signupButtonDiv=document.createElement("div");signupButtonDiv.classList.add("signup-button");signupButtonDiv.innerHTML=signupButtonHTML;signupButtonDiv.children[0].addEventListener("click",function(evt){analyticsLayer.push({"event":"clickEvent","clickEvent":{"testId":"des738","feature":"newsletter-signup","action":"newsletter-signup clicked","type":"test","label":"newsletter-signup"}});location.href="/newsletters/#newsletter-group-5"});newNode.appendChild(signupLogoDiv);signupTextDiv.appendChild(signupButtonDiv); newNode.appendChild(signupTextDiv);return newNode} var beppiInterval=setInterval(function(){var shouldNotRender=true;try{if(tgam.datalayer.article.byline.indexOf("BEPPI")!==-1&&tgam.datalayer.page.lastSection==="winereviews"){shouldNotRender=false;console.log("beppi")}else console.log("not beppi");clearInterval(beppiInterval)}catch(error){return}if(shouldNotRender)return;var author_holder=document.getElementsByClassName("u-wrapper pb-feature pb-layout-item pb-f-article-follow-on-twitter")[0];var article_actions=document.getElementsByClassName("u-wrapper pb-feature pb-layout-item pb-f-article-actions")[0]; if(author_holder!==undefined&&article_actions!==undefined&&setupWineWidget()){author_holder.appendChild(createNewAuthorWidget());article_actions.insertAdjacentElement("afterend",createSignupPoster());article_actions.insertAdjacentElement("afterend",createNewWineLists());var articleId=tgam.datalayer.article.contentId;if(articleId){document.getElementsByClassName("c-follow-authors u-floorless")[0].classList.add("u-hidden");[{"url":"https://tgamuserprofile.theglobeandmail.ca/wine/getSimilarPriceWine?limit\x3d3\x26articleId\x3d"+ articleId,"listClass":"list-other-wines"},{"url":"https://tgamuserprofile.theglobeandmail.ca/wine/getSimilarWine?limit\x3d3\x26articleId\x3d"+articleId,"listClass":"list-similar-wines"}].forEach(function(endpointObject){var request=new XMLHttpRequest;request.addEventListener("load",function(){populateWineList(endpointObject.listClass,request.responseText)});request.open("GET",endpointObject.url);request.send()});if(!tgam.datalayer.identity.newsletter||tgam.datalayer.identity.newsletter.indexOf("108")=== -1)document.getElementsByClassName("signup-box")[0].classList.remove("u-hidden");document.getElementsByClassName("beppi-grid")[0].classList.remove("u-hidden")}}}); .width-increase{margin-top:1rem}.container{background-color:#F4F3F1;padding:0.625rem;margin-top:2.1875rem;margin-bottom:2.3125rem}.author-description{font-family:"GMsanC-Regular",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.75rem;line-height:0.75rem;letter-spacing:0.0625rem;text-transform:uppercase}.description-div{font-family:"GMsanC-Regular",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.875rem;line-height:1rem;letter-spacing:0.01875rem;margin-top:1rem}.header-link{font-family:"GMsanC-Bold",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.875rem;text-decoration:none;text-transform:uppercase;color:#191919;line-height:0.9375rem;letter-spacing:0.0625rem}.header-button{font-family:"GMsanC-Bold",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.875rem;background-color:#9E7441;border:none;border-radius:0.125rem;line-height:0.875rem;text-transform:uppercase;cursor:pointer;width:100%;padding:1rem;height:2.5rem;letter-spacing:0.0625rem;color:#fff}.header-button:hover{color:#EEEDEA;transition:color 0.25s ease-in}.arrow-svg{width:.625rem;height:.625rem;margin-left:.09375rem;fill:#DA171F;display:inline-block}.picture-beppi{cursor:pointer;width:100%;height:auto}.list-grid{margin-top:2.5rem}.list-similar-wines{background-color:#F9F9F8;border:1px #DCD9D7 solid;padding:0.625rem;width:50%;display:inline-block;float:right}.list-other-wines{border:1px #EEEDEA solid;padding:0.625rem;width:50%;display:inline-block}.list-title{font-family:"GMsanC-Bold",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.75rem;color:#595959;line-height:0.75rem;letter-spacing:0.0625rem;padding-bottom:0.5rem;text-transform:uppercase}.list-item{border-top:1px #EEEDEA solid;padding-top:0.625rem;padding-bottom:0.625rem}.list-item-small{font-size:0.75rem;line-height:0.75rem;letter-spacing:0.0625rem}.list-item-title{font-family:"Pratt",Georgia,Palatino,"Book Antiqua","Times New Roman",serif;font-size:1.0625rem;color:#191919;margin-right:0.5rem}.list-rating{font-family:"GMsanC-Bold",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;color:#6B0B0F;margin-right:0.5rem}.list-price{font-family:"GMsanC-Regular",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;color:#595959}.avail-warning-text{font-family:"GMsanC-Italic",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.875rem;line-height:1rem;letter-spacing:0.01875rem;color:#595959}.tag-box{font-family:"GMsanC-Bold",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.75rem;color:#595959;line-height:0.75rem;letter-spacing:0.0625rem;text-transform:uppercase;margin-top:2.1875rem}.wine-tag{display:inline-block;font-family:"GMsanC-Regular",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;background-color:#F9F9F8;border:1px solid #C4C1BD;margin:0.3rem;padding:0.625rem;line-height:0.8125rem}.ebook-text-heading{font-family:"GMsanC-Bold",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.75rem;line-height:0.75rem;letter-spacing:0.0625rem;text-transform:uppercase;color:#681D3C;background:#FFF;padding:0.2rem 0.35rem 0.2rem 0.35rem}.ebook-text-title{font-family:"Pratt-Bold",Georgia,Palatino,"Book Antiqua","Times New Roman",serif;font-size:1.375rem;letter-spacing:0;line-height:1.5625rem;margin-top:0.75rem;color:#FFF;display:block;text-decoration:none}.beppi-grid{}.picture-grid{float:left;display:inline-block;width:25%}.ebook-box{background-color:#681D3C;color:#FFF;margin-top:3rem;display:flex;flex:auto;-webkit-box-flex:auto;-ms-flex:auto}.ebook-text{padding:0.625rem;order:1}.ebook-picture-div{cursor:pointer;order:2}.ebook-picture-size{width:12rem;height:100%}.signup-box{border:1px solid #D3D2D0;background-color:#F8EDE9;margin-top:1.25rem;padding:0.625rem}.signup-logo{font-family:"Pratt",Georgia,Palatino,"Book Antiqua","Times New Roman",serif;line-height:2.1875rem;font-size:2.8125rem;letter-spacing:-0.045rem;color:#6B0B0F;display:inline-block;float:left}.signup-cta{font-family:"GMsanC-Bold",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.75rem;line-height:0.75rem;letter-spacing:0.0625rem;color:#595959;text-transform:uppercase}.signup-text{color:#191919;font-family:"Pratt-Italic",Georgia,Palatino,"Book Antiqua","Times New Roman",serif;font-size:1.1875rem;letter-spacing:0;line-height:1.4375rem;display:inline-block;float:right;width:65%}.signup-button{font-family:"GMsanC-Bold",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-size:0.75rem;line-height:1rem;letter-spacing:0.0625rem;margin-top:0.625rem}.text-grid-desc{text-align:left}.text-grid-button{float:right;position:relative;top:-2rem;padding:0.25rem}@supports (display:grid){.width-increase{margin-top:unset}.beppi-grid{display:grid;grid-template-rows:auto;grid-column-gap:1rem;grid-row-gap:5%;grid-template-columns:25% 35% 35%}.picture-grid{grid-column:1;grid-row:1/3;float:unset;display:unset;width:unset}.text-grid-link{grid-column:2/3;grid-row:1}.text-grid-button{grid-column:3;grid-row:1;float:unset;position:unset;top:unset;padding:unset}.text-grid-desc{grid-column:2/4;grid-row:2}.description-div{margin-top:unset}.list-grid{display:grid;grid-gap:1.25rem;grid-template-columns:49% 49%}.force-wide-list{width:100% !important;display:inline-block !important;margin-bottom:0.875rem}.list-other-wines{grid-column:1;grid-row:1;display:unset;width:unset}.list-similar-wines{grid-column:2;grid-row:1;float:unset;display:unset;width:unset}.list-avail-warning{grid-column:1/3;grid-row:2}.signup-box{display:grid;grid-template-rows:auto;grid-column-gap:1rem;grid-template-columns:30% 25% 40%}.signup-logo{grid-column:1/2;grid-row:1;display:unset;float:unset}.signup-cta{grid-column:1/2;grid-row:2}.signup-text{grid-column:2/4;grid-row:1;display:unset;float:unset;width:unset}.header-button{padding:unset}}@media (max-width:474px){.container{margin-top:1.375rem;margin-bottom:1.6875rem}.header-button{letter-spacing:0.0625rem !important;height:2.5rem !important}.tag-box{margin-top:2.75rem}.width-increase{width:100%}.list-grid{margin-top:2.75rem}.signup-box{margin-top:2.75rem;padding:1.25rem}.ebook-box{flex-direction:column;margin-top:1.625rem}.ebook-text{order:2}.ebook-picture-div{order:1}.ebook-picture-size{width:100%}@supports (display:grid){.width-increase{margin-top:unset}.beppi-grid{grid-template-columns:25% 65%;grid-row-gap:0.5rem}.text-grid-button{grid-column:2/4;grid-row:2}.header-button{padding:unset}.text-grid-desc{grid-column:2/4;grid-row:3}.description-div{margin-top:unset}.list-grid{grid-template-columns:100%}.list-other-wines{grid-column:1;grid-row:1}.list-similar-wines{grid-column:1;grid-row:2}.list-avail-warning{grid-column:1;grid-row:3}.signup-box{grid-template-columns:100%;grid-gap:1rem}.signup-text{grid-column:1;grid-row:3}}}@media (min-width:475px) and (max-width:600px){.header-button{letter-spacing:0.0625rem !important;height:2.5rem !important}.ebook-box{margin-top:2.25rem}.width-increase{width:100%}.list-grid{margin-top:1.56rem}.signup-box{padding:1.25rem}.signup-button{text-align:center}.ebook-box{flex-direction:column;margin-top:1.625rem}.ebook-text{order:2}.ebook-picture-div{order:1}.ebook-picture-size{width:100%}@supports (display:grid){.width-increase{margin-top:unset}.header-button{padding:unset}.beppi-grid{grid-template-columns:25% 65%;grid-row-gap:0.5rem}.text-grid-desc{grid-column:2/4;grid-row:3}.description-div{margin-top:unset}.text-grid-button{grid-column:2/4;grid-row:2}.list-grid{grid-template-columns:100%}.list-other-wines{grid-column:1;grid-row:1}.list-similar-wines{grid-column:1;grid-row:2}.list-avail-warning{grid-column:1;grid-row:3}.signup-box{grid-template-columns:100%;grid-gap:1rem}.signup-text{grid-column:1;grid-row:3}}} var des810_articleReadList = []; var des810_userReadArticles = []; var des810_topThreeAuthors = new Array(); var des810_contentList = ''; var des810_acceptable_authorread_map = { 'ROB CARRICK' : { 'name' : 'Rob Carrick', 'url' : '/authors/rob-carrick/', 'picture' : 'https://www.theglobeandmail.com/resizer/j9EV6YhFXJNT3nl8q1bxw7fds4o=/1200x0/filters:quality(80)/s3.amazonaws.com/arc-authors/tgam/b3222008-b98d-42c8-8830-02e465b09bea.JPG', 'email' : 'rcarrick@globeandmail.com', 'beatLine' : 'Financial Collumist', 'query': 'credits.by.name%3A%20carrick', 'queryURL': 'https://www.theglobeandmail.com/query-collection/?outputType=json&_compact=true&q=stories-carrick' }, 'ROBERT FIFE' : { 'name' : 'Robert Fife', 'url' : '/authors/robert-fife/', 'picture' : 'https://www.theglobeandmail.com/resizer/qx2v7SkcPwHZ91a3HYYiS7j8JlI=/1200x0/filters:quality(80)/s3.amazonaws.com/arc-authors/tgam/f00cc9a3-524a-4244-9bf4-2892ca36c0b8.jpg', 'email' : 'rcarrick@globeandmail.com', 'beatLine' : 'Personal Financial Collumist', 'query': 'credits.by.name%3A%20fife', 'queryURL': 'https://www.theglobeandmail.com/query-collection/?outputType=json&_compact=true&q=stories-fife' }, 'LAURA STONE' : { 'name' : 'Laura Stone', 'url' : '/authors/laura-stone/', 'picture' : 'https://www.theglobeandmail.com/resizer/ATBGYZjRLFAsDLO9TQpHXPGZ0Sc=/1200x0/filters:quality(80)/s3.amazonaws.com/arc-authors/tgam/3a1f8e39-51a1-4725-a040-3303ebe8447e.jpg', 'email' : 'rcarrick@globeandmail.com', 'beatLine' : 'Personal Financial Collumist', 'query': 'credits.by.name%3A%20stone', 'queryURL': 'https://www.theglobeandmail.com/query-collection/?outputType=json&_compact=true&q=stories-stone' }, 'JOHN IBBITSON' : { 'name' : 'John Ibbitson', 'url' : '/authors/john-ibbitson/', 'picture' : 'https://www.theglobeandmail.com/resizer/8FctFyW9JJghJfsPhaIBQ0W3LkM=/1200x0/filters:quality(80)/s3.amazonaws.com/arc-authors/tgam/c617ab6a-4545-4faa-9d13-90e5b0bbbc39.JPG', 'email' : 'rcarrick@globeandmail.com', 'beatLine' : 'Personal Financial Collumist', 'query': 'credits.by.name%3A%20ibbitson', 'queryURL': 'https://www.theglobeandmail.com/query-collection/?outputType=json&_compact=true&q=stories-ibbitson' }, 'MARGARET WENTE' : { 'name' : 'Margaret Wente', 'url' : '/authors/margaret-wente/', 'picture' : 'https://www.theglobeandmail.com/resizer/-woWr3OMSz0NYYGeb6pn4YkKIoc=/1200x0/filters:quality(80)/s3.amazonaws.com/arc-authors/tgam/9391f949-08af-4648-ad7e-8f32689e938a.JPG', 'email' : 'rcarrick@globeandmail.com', 'beatLine' : 'Personal Financial Collumist', 'query': 'credits.by.name%3A%20wente', 'queryURL': 'https://www.theglobeandmail.com/query-collection/?outputType=json&_compact=true&q=stories-wente' } }; var des810_authorreadMap = { 'ROB CARRICK' : 0, 'ROBERT FIFE' : 0, 'LAURA STONE' : 0, 'JOHN IBBITSON' : 0, 'MARGARET WENTE' : 0 }; function des810_authorAbortConditionsMet( guid ) { if (!guid) { return false; } var localStoryObject = window.localStorage; if (!localStoryObject) { return false; } des810_groupKey = localStoryObject.getItem('des810_group'); if ( !des810_groupKey ) { des810_groupKey = ( Math.round( Math.random() * 10 ) < 5 ) ? 'show' : 'hide'; localStoryObject.setItem( 'des810_group' , des810_groupKey ); } analyticsLayer.push( { "event": "clickEvent", "clickEvent": { "testId": "des810", "feature": "feature-" + des810_groupKey, "action": "feature-" + des810_groupKey, "type": "test", "label": "favoriteAuthors" } } ); if ( des810_groupKey === 'hide' ) { return false; } return true; } function des810_retrieveFavoriteAuthorsRead(guid) { if( ! des810_authorAbortConditionsMet( guid ) ) { return; } var d = new Date(); var n = (d.getMonth() < 9 ? '0' : '') + (d.getMonth() + 1); var y = '2018'; var monthYear = n+y; var numMonths = 2; var url = 'https://tgamuserprofile.theglobeandmail.ca/main/regpreuserprofile/?hashId=' + guid + '&monthYear=' + monthYear + '&numberOfMonths=' + numMonths; var userProfileArray = undefined; var request = new XMLHttpRequest(); request.addEventListener('load', function() { try { userProfileArray = JSON.parse(request.responseText); userProfileArray.forEach(function(monthElement) { for(var i = 1; i < 6; i++) { ['Computer', 'Mobile', 'Tablet'].forEach(function(deviceType) { if(monthElement.weeklyFeatures[i] === undefined || monthElement.weeklyFeatures[i].deviceFeatures[deviceType] === undefined) { return; } des810_userReadArticles.push.apply( des810_userReadArticles, monthElement.weeklyFeatures[i].deviceFeatures[deviceType].articleIds); des810_getCountMap(monthElement.weeklyFeatures[i].deviceFeatures[deviceType].authorCount, des810_acceptable_authorread_map, des810_authorreadMap); }); } }); for (var property in des810_acceptable_authorread_map) { if (des810_acceptable_authorread_map.hasOwnProperty(property)) { des810_topThreeAuthors.push(property); if (des810_topThreeAuthors.length > 3) { des810_topThreeAuthors.sort(function(a, b) { return des810_authorreadMap[b] - des810_authorreadMap[a]; }); des810_topThreeAuthors.pop(); } } } // console.log('This is user read articles', userReadArticles); // console.log('This is Top 3 Authors', topThreeAuthors) des810_getAuthorReadStories(des810_topThreeAuthors); } catch (error) { console.log(error); } }); request.open('GET', url); request.send(); return undefined; } function des810_getCountMap(targetMap, acceptableMap, countMap) { for (var property in targetMap) { if (targetMap.hasOwnProperty(property)) { property = property.trim(); if(!acceptableMap[property]) { continue; } countMap[property] = (countMap[property]=== undefined ? targetMap[property] : countMap[property] + targetMap[property]); } } } function des810_getAuthorReadStories(favAuthors) { if(!favAuthors) { return false; } var threeFavoriteAuthors = des810_setupAuthorReads(favAuthors); var index = 0; threeFavoriteAuthors.forEach(function(item, i) { var query_url = item.queryURL var authorStoriesArray = undefined; var ajaxRequest = new XMLHttpRequest(); ajaxRequest.addEventListener('load', function() { try { authorStoriesArray = JSON.parse(ajaxRequest.responseText); authorStoriesArray.entries.forEach(function(story) { if(story) { // console.log('This is story: ', story) des810_articleReadList.push({ 'url' : story.canonical_url, 'headline' : story.headlines.basic, 'id': story.source.source_id, 'author': story.authors[0].name }); } }); if(!des810_articleReadList) { return; } else if(index === 1) des810_getReadStories(index); index++ } catch (error) { console.log('thus is error',error); } }); // console.log("this is query URL : ", item.queryURL); ajaxRequest.open('GET', query_url); ajaxRequest.send(); }); } function des810_randomize() { var tempVal, randomNum; for(var i = 0; i < des810_articleReadList.length; i++) { randomNum = Math.floor(Math.random() * i); tempVal = des810_articleReadList[i]; des810_articleReadList[i] = des810_articleReadList[randomNum]; des810_articleReadList[randomNum] = tempVal; } } function des810_favAuthorClicked () { analyticsLayer.push( { "event": "clickEvent", "clickEvent": { "testId": "des810", "feature": "feature-clicked", "action": "feature-clicked", "type": "test", "label": "favoriteAuthorsClicked" } } ); } function des810_populateList() { des810_articleReadList = des810_getNonReadStories(); des810_randomize(); var currentStoriesList = ''; for (var i = 0; i < 4; i++) { currentStoriesList += ` ${des810_articleReadList[i].headline} ${des810_articleReadList[i].author} ` } return currentStoriesList } function des810_getReadStories(index) { // console.log('favorite author reads list: ', articleReadList) // console.log('index is: ', index); if(index < 2){ des810_contentList += des810_populateList() } if( index === 1) { var queryToAppendAuthorsRead = '#main-content-area > div.l-row > div.pb-container'; var AuthContentRead = document.createElement('div'); AuthContentRead.classList.add('u-wrapper'); AuthContentRead.innerHTML = '' + 'Stories From Authors You Read' + '' + des810_contentList + ''; document.querySelector(queryToAppendAuthorsRead).appendChild(AuthContentRead); var personalizationText = 'This feature is based on your reading history, which The Globe and Mail stores for logged in users.', personalizationSVGMarkup = ' '; var personalizationAlert = '' + personalizationSVGMarkup + '' + personalizationText + ' '; document.getElementsByClassName('authors-you-read')[0].insertAdjacentHTML('afterend', personalizationAlert); } } function des810_getNonReadStories() { var newarticleReadList = des810_articleReadList.filter(function(val) { return des810_userReadArticles.indexOf(val.id) == -1; }) // console.log('newArticleReadList: ', newarticleReadList); // console.log('oldArticleReadList: ', articleReadList); return newarticleReadList } function des810_setupAuthorReads(topThreeAuthors) { var favoriteAuthorOne = des810_acceptable_authorread_map[topThreeAuthors[0]] || ''; var favoriteAuthorTwo = des810_acceptable_authorread_map[topThreeAuthors[1]] || ''; var favoriteAuthorThree = des810_acceptable_authorread_map[topThreeAuthors[2]] || ''; return [favoriteAuthorOne, favoriteAuthorTwo, favoriteAuthorThree] } function des810_validateIfHashIdPresent() { var guidArray = document.cookie.split(';').filter(function(item) { return item.indexOf('gtm_u_info') >= 0; }); if (guidArray.length < 1) { return false; } var guid = guidArray[0].split('=')[1].split('%')[0]; if(guid.length < 32) { return false; } // Only subscribers and registered users will be able to make it past this point return guid; } function des810_show_tooltip ( showTooltip ) { document.getElementById( 'js-c-realtime-tooltip_authors' ).classList[ showTooltip ? 'add' : 'remove' ]( 'authors-force-tooltip-visibility' ); } (function() { des810_retrieveFavoriteAuthorsRead(des810_validateIfHashIdPresent()); })(); .l-row>.pb-container>.u-wrapper:not([class*="l-col"]):not(.l-full):not(.pb-f-commercial-dfp-ads){padding-left:.625rem;padding-right:.625rem}.l-row>.pb-container>.u-wrapper:not([class*="l-col"]):not(.l-full):not(.l-full-width){width:100%}.authors-article-list__heading{font-family:"GMsanC-Bold",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal;margin-bottom:0;padding-bottom:.625rem;font-size:.875rem;line-height:1;text-transform:uppercase;color:#191919;letter-spacing:.0625rem;border-bottom:1px solid #dcd9d7}.authors-article-list__content{margin:0;padding:0;list-style:none}.authors-article-list__item-content{padding-top:.8375rem;padding-bottom:.8375rem;border-bottom:1px solid #eeedea;position:relative}.authors-article-list__link{font-family:"Pratt",Georgia,Palatino,"Book Antiqua","Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal;display:block;font-size:1.0625rem;line-height:1.23529;color:#191919;text-decoration:none}.authors-card__meta-authors{font-family:"GMsanC-Regular",Helvetica,Arial,Verdana,sans-serif;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal;text-transform:uppercase;font-size:.75rem;letter-spacing:.0625rem;line-height:1.25;color:#666;margin-top:.625rem;display:block}.authors-related-articles{margin-top:1.625rem;margin-bottom:1.625rem;padding:.625rem .625rem 0 .625rem;border:1px solid #eeedea;background-color:#fff}.author-right-margin{float:right;width:0;height:1.5rem;background:none;border:none;padding-right:2rem;top:-2rem}.authors-force-tooltip-visibility{visibility:visible !important} var des821_acceptable_articleSection_map={"canada":{"param":"canada"},"canada2":{"param":"canada2"},"canada3":{"param":"canada3"},"world":{"param":"world"},"business":{"param":"business"},"investing":{"param":"investing"},"opinion":{"param":"opinion"},"politics":{"param":"politics"},"sports":{"param":"sports"},"life":{"param":"life"},"arts":{"param":"arts"},"drive":{"param":"drive"},"globerealestate":{"param":"real-estate"}};var des821_query_builder_url="https://www.theglobeandmail.com/query-collection/?outputType\x3djson\x26_compact\x3dtrue\x26q\x3dlatest-"; if(window.location.href.indexOf("arc-dev")!==-1)des821_query_builder_url="https://arc-dev.theglobeandmail.com/query-builder/?outputType\x3djson\x26_compact\x3dtrue\x26q\x3dlatest-";var des821_user_profile_url="https://tgamuserprofile.theglobeandmail.ca/main/regpreuserprofile/?hashId\x3d";var des821_queryResults=[];var des821_lask_known_scroll_pos=0;var des821_direction="";var des821_groupKey="";var des821_ticking=false;var de821_scroll_on=50;var des821_isPopdownPresent=false; var des821_popdownDismissed=false;var des821_max_sections=3;var des821_defaultList=["canada","canada2","canada3"]; function des821_popdownAbortConditionsMet(guid){if(!guid)return false;var localStoryObject=window.localStorage;if(!localStoryObject)return false;des821_groupKey=localStoryObject.getItem("des821_group");if(!des821_groupKey||des821_groupKey==="show"||des821_groupKey==="hide"){des821_groupKey=Math.round(Math.random()*10)===1?"show_reduced":"hide_reduced";localStoryObject.setItem("des821_group",des821_groupKey)}analyticsLayer.push({"event":"clickEvent","clickEvent":{"testId":"des821","feature":"feature-"+ des821_groupKey,"action":"feature-"+des821_groupKey,"type":"test","label":"popdown"}});if(des821_groupKey==="hide_reduced")return false;return true} function des821_retrieveUserSectionsAndStories(guid){if(!des821_popdownAbortConditionsMet(guid))return;des821_setupScrollListener();var d=new Date;var n=(d.getMonth()<9?"0":"")+(d.getMonth()+1);var y="2018";var monthYear=n+y;var numMonths=2;var final_url=des821_user_profile_url+guid+"\x26monthYear\x3d"+monthYear+"\x26numberOfMonths\x3d"+numMonths;var request=new XMLHttpRequest;request.addEventListener("load",function(){var largestList=des821_retrieveAndMapUserProfile(JSON.parse(request.responseText)); if(largestList.lengtharticleSectionMap[largestSoFar])largestSoFar=property}delete articleSectionMap[largestSoFar];if(largestSoFar){largestList.push(largestSoFar); largestSoFar=undefined}}return largestList} function des821_getSectionStories(section,counter){if(!section)return false;var ajaxRequest=new XMLHttpRequest,targetArticle=undefined;ajaxRequest.addEventListener("load",function(){JSON.parse(ajaxRequest.responseText).entries.forEach(function(story){if(!targetArticle&&window.location.href.indexOf(story.canonical_url)===-1)targetArticle={"headline":story.headlines.basic,"image":story.image,"url":story.canonical_url,"counter":counter}});if(!targetArticle)return false;else des821_queryResults.push(targetArticle)}); ajaxRequest.open("GET",des821_query_builder_url+des821_acceptable_articleSection_map[section].param);ajaxRequest.send()} function des821_setupSectionStory(targetArticle){var imageString=targetArticle.image.srcset?'\x3cdiv class\x3d"o-card__col"\x3e'+'\x3cimg class\x3d"c-image popdown-card-image image-text-indent" src\x3d"'+targetArticle.image.srcset["100"].src+'" alt\x3d"'+targetArticle.image.caption+'"\x3e\x3c/div\x3e':"";var htmlString='\x3cdiv class\x3d"o-card o-card--story card-margin u-hidden card-'+targetArticle.counter+'"\x3e'+'\x3ca class\x3d"o-card__link o-card_no-outline" href\x3d"'+targetArticle.url+'" onclick\x3d"des821_popdownLinkClickAction(' + targetArticle.counter + ')"\x3e'+ '\x3cdiv class\x3d"o-card__content"\x3e'+'\x3cdiv class\x3d"o-card__col"\x3e'+'\x3cspan class\x3d"o-card__content-group"\x3e'+'\x3cspan class\x3d"o-card__content-text"\x3e'+targetArticle.headline+"\x3c/span\x3e\x3c/span\x3e\x3c/div\x3e"+imageString+"\x3c/div\x3e\x3c/a\x3e\x3c/div\x3e";document.getElementById("popdownCardContainer").insertAdjacentHTML("afterbegin",htmlString)} function des821_show_tooltip(showTooltip){document.getElementById("js-c-realtime-tooltip_popdown").classList[showTooltip?"add":"remove"]("force-tooltip-visibility")} function des821_setupPopdownContainer(){var popdownContainer=document.createElement("div");popdownContainer.setAttribute("id","popdownContainer");popdownContainer.classList.add("popdown-container");popdownContainer.classList.add("disappearing-popdown");popdownContainer.innerHTML='\x3cdiv class\x3d"popdown-meta"\x3e\x3ch5 class\x3d"label-margin c-timestamp"\x3eYou may be interested in\x3c/h5\x3e\x3c/div\x3e';var personalizationText="This feature is based on your reading history, which The Globe and Mail stores for logged in users.", personalizationSVGMarkup='\x3cspan class\x3d"c-indicator-icon" aria-label\x3d"Information"\x3e \x3csvg class\x3d"c-indicator-icon__art" role\x3d"img" pointer-events\x3d"none" focusable\x3d"false" aria-hidden\x3d"true" style\x3d"fill:#fff;"\x3e \x3cuse xmlns:xlink\x3d"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href\x3d"/pb/resources/assets/img/tgam-patterns/sprite.svg?token\x3d'+tgam.env.cacheToken+'#icon-info"\x3e\x3c/use\x3e \x3c/svg\x3e \x3c/span\x3e';var personalizationAlert='\x3cbutton class\x3d"right-margin" onfocus\x3d"des821_show_tooltip(true)" onblur\x3d"des821_show_tooltip(false)"\x3e \x3cspan class\x3d"c-tooltip personalization-alert"\x3e'+ personalizationSVGMarkup+'\x3cspan class\x3d"c-tooltip__text tooltip-text" id\x3d"js-c-realtime-tooltip_popdown" role\x3d"tooltip" style\x3d"width: 8rem !important;"\x3e'+personalizationText+"\x3c/span\x3e \x3c/span\x3e \x3c/button\x3e";var closePopdown='\x3cbutton onclick\x3d"des821_dismissPopdown(true)" class\x3d"right-margin close-button-margin" style\x3d"padding-right: 1.75rem !important"\x3e \x3cspan onclick\x3d"des821_dismissPopdown(true)" class\x3d"c-tooltip" aria-label\x3d"Close"\x3e\x3csvg class\x3d"c-indicator-icon__art" role\x3d"img" pointer-events\x3d"none" focusable\x3d"false" aria-hidden\x3d"true" style\x3d"fill:#fff;"\x3e \x3cuse xlink:href\x3d"/pb/resources/assets/img/tgam-patterns/sprite.svg?token\x3d'+ tgam.env.cacheToken+'#close-x"\x3e\x3c/use\x3e \x3c/svg\x3e\x3c/span\x3e \x3c/button\x3e';var popdownCardContainer=document.createElement("div");popdownCardContainer.setAttribute("id","popdownCardContainer");popdownCardContainer.classList.add("popdown-card-container");popdownContainer.appendChild(popdownCardContainer);popdownContainer.addEventListener("transitionend",function(){if(popdownContainer.classList.contains("disappearing-popdown"))addRemoveHiddenFromCards("add")});document.getElementsByClassName("pb-f-global-header")[0].insertAdjacentElement("afterend", popdownContainer);document.getElementsByClassName("popdown-meta")[0].insertAdjacentHTML("beforeend",personalizationAlert);document.getElementsByClassName("popdown-card-container")[0].insertAdjacentHTML("afterend",closePopdown);des821_queryResults.forEach(des821_setupSectionStory);des821_isPopdownPresent=true;analyticsLayer.push({"event":"clickEvent","clickEvent":{"testId":"des821","feature":"feature-activated","action":"feature-activated","type":"test","label":"popdown"}})} function addRemoveHiddenFromCards(action){var cardList=[document.getElementsByClassName("card-0")[0],document.getElementsByClassName("card-1")[0],document.getElementsByClassName("card-2")[0]];for(var cardCounter=0;cardCounter200&&yValuede821_scroll_on){des821_ticking=true;if(!des821_isPopdownPresent){if(!(des821_queryResults.lengthdes821_lask_known_scroll_pos)){des821_ticking=true;des821_direction="up";des821_dismissPopdown();des821_ticking=false}} function des821_setupScrollListener(){window.addEventListener("scroll",function(){if(des821_popdownDismissed)return;var yValue=window.scrollY?window.scrollY:window.pageYOffset;if(des821_ticking){des821_lask_known_scroll_pos=yValue;return}window.requestAnimationFrame(function(){des821_revealPopdown(yValue);des821_lask_known_scroll_pos=yValue})})} function des821_validateIfHashIdPresent(){var guidArray=document.cookie.split(";").filter(function(item){return item.indexOf("gtm_u_info")>=0});if(guidArray.length<1)return false;var guid=guidArray[0].split("\x3d")[1].split("%")[0];if(guid.length<32)return false;return guid} function des821_getCountMap(targetMap,acceptableMap,countMap){for(var property in targetMap)if(targetMap.hasOwnProperty(property)&&acceptableMap[property])countMap[property]=countMap[property]===undefined?targetMap[property]:countMap[property]+targetMap[property]}(function(){des821_retrieveUserSectionsAndStories(des821_validateIfHashIdPresent())})(); .popdown-container{position:fixed;top:3rem;left:0;right:0;background:#333;z-index:999;overflow:hidden;max-height:0}.popdown-card-container{display:flex;width:100%}.disappearing-popdown{max-height:0 !important;transition-property:max-height;transition-duration:0.5s;transition-timing-function:ease-out;-webkit-transition-property:max-height;-webkit-transition-duration:0.5s;-webkit-transition-timing-function:ease-out}.appearing-popdown{max-height:20rem !important;transition-property:max-height;transition-duration:0.5s;transition-timing-function:ease-out;-webkit-transition-property:max-height;-webkit-transition-duration:0.5s;-webkit-transition-timing-function:ease-in}.popdown-card-image{width:100px !important;float:right !important}.card-margin{width:33%;margin:0.5rem 1% .625rem 1% !important}.force-tooltip-visibility{visibility:visible !important}.right-margin{float:right;width:0;height:1.5rem;background:none;border:none;padding-right:2rem}.label-margin{color:#FFF;width:20rem;display:inline;margin-left:1%}.image-text-indent{text-indent:-9999px}.popdown-meta{margin-top:1.025rem}@media (max-width:420px){.card-margin{width:96%;margin:0.5rem 2% .625rem 2% !important}.label-margin{margin-left:2%}.card-0{display:none}.card-1{display:none}}@media (max-width:980px) and (min-width:421px) and (orientation:landscape){#popdownContainer{display:none !important}#top-fullwidth-area>div.pb-container>div.pb-f-commercial-dfp-ads{margin-top:0 !important}}@media (max-width:980px) and (min-width:421px) and (orientation:portrait){.card-margin{width:46%;margin:0.5rem 2% .625rem 2% !important}.label-margin{margin-left:2%}.card-0{display:none}} (function(){function dwExecute(){_dw=window._dw||[];_dw.push(["global","before",function(api){api.dispatch("segments-done")}])}window.tgam.datalayer.ready.push(dwExecute)})(); const isRobArticle = window.location.href.indexOf('article-download-the-may-2018-edition-of-report-on-business-magazine') > -1; const isFromEmail = window.location.search.indexOf('cmpid=MK0617_ROBdownload_Email') > -1; if (isRobArticle && isFromEmail){ document.getElementsByClassName("c-article-body__text")[0].addEventListener("click", function(){ analyticsLayer.push({ "event":"clickEvent", "clickEvent": { "testId": "cem724", "feature": "featureContent", "action": "Download.PDFfile", "type": "test", "label": "Download", "variantName": "any", "segmentName":"c-sect" } }); }); } ._acsbottomright._acsVertical_right._acsbadge--default{margin-bottom:7em} !function(){(function(e,n){function t(e){return function(n,t,a){if(t)e[n]={when:function(){try{return t.call(e[n])}catch(e){return console&&console.warn('[when()@VisitorSegment("'+n+'")]',"Continuing despite error.",e),null}},setup:function(){try{return a.call(e[n])}catch(e){return console&&console.warn('[setup()@VisitorSegment("'+n+'")]',"Continuing despite error.",e),null}}},a&&(e[n]._setupResult=!!e[n].call(e[n]));else if(e[n])return e[n].when.call(e[n],e[n]._setupResult)}}function a(){var e=navigator.userAgent; return!!(e.match(/Android/i)||e.match(/webOS/i)||e.match(/iPhone/i)||e.match(/iPad/i)||e.match(/iPod/i)||e.match(/BlackBerry/i)||e.match(/Kindle/i)||e.match(/Windows Phone/i)||e.match(/IEMobile/i))}function i(e){var n=localStorage.getItem("_vsData")||"{}";return JSON.parse(n)[e]}function s(e,n){var t=localStorage.getItem("_vsData")||"{}",t=JSON.parse(t);t[e]=n,n=JSON.stringify(t),localStorage.removeItem("_vsData"),localStorage.setItem("_vsData",n)}var c=e._vsdata=e._vsdata||{},m=function(e,n,a){return t(c).call(this, e,n,a)};m.clone=function(e){var n;if(e)if(null===c||"object"!=typeof c)n=c;else{e=c.constructor();for(n in c)c.hasOwnProperty(n)&&(e[n]=c[n]);n=e}else n=c;return t(n)};var l={};m.resolve=function(e,n){l[e]||(l[e]=[]),setTimeout(function(){l[e].resolved=!0,l[e].argsobj=n;var t,a,i=l[e];for(a=0;i.length,t=i[a];a++)t.fn(n)},0)},m.done=function(e,n){e&&n&&(l[e]||(l[e]=[]),l[e].resolved?n(l[e].argsobj):"function"==typeof n&&l[e].push({fn:n}))},m.Deferred=function(e){this.done=function(n){m.done(e,n)}, this.resolve=function(n){m.resolve(e,n)}},m("desktop",function(){return!a()}),m("!mobile",function(){return!m("mobile")}),m("mobile",function(){return a()}),m("touch",function(){return!!("ontouchstart"in e)}),m("!touch",function(){return!m("touch")}),m("first_visit",function(){var e=i("first_time_start"),n=i("first_time_end");return e&&!n&&18E5<=(new Date).getTime()-(new Date(e)).getTime()?(s("first_time_end",!0),!1):e?!n:(s("first_time_start",(new Date).getTime()),!0)}),e.VisitorSegment=m})(window), function(e,t,a){function i(e,n){function t(e){this.$dw=i,this.length=0,this._add=function(e,n){var t=n.length;return g.each(e,function(e,a){n[t+e]=a,n.length++}),n},this._add(e,this),this.toArray=function(){var e=[];for(var n in this)this[n]instanceof i.Variant&&e.push(this[n]);return e}}this._id=a,this._config={},this._testData={},this._ignoreBlacklist=a,this._state="uninitialized",this._handlers=[],this._dispatches={},this._id=e||this._id,this._visitor=n||new this.Visitor({},t),p[this._id]=this, this._handlers=v[this._id]||this._handlers,t.prototype=this.$plugins;var i=this;this._makeResult=function(e){var n=e||[];return n.constructor!==Array&&(n=[n]),new t(n)}}function s(e,t,a,i){var s=[];return g.each(t,function(e,t){var a=t.customOptions,i="";if(a)for(n in a)a.hasOwnProperty(n)&&(i+=[n,a[n]].join("\x3d"));s.push(t.name+i)}),[e,s.sort().join(""),!!a,i].join("")}function c(e,n,t){var a;return g.each(e,function(e,i){if(i[n]==t)return a=i,!1}),a}function m(e){if(!e)throw new Error("invalid name"); return e.toLowerCase()}function l(e){return{name:"Dw__"+e,visit:"Dw__"+e+"__visit",blacklisted:"Dw__"+e+"__blstd",compute:"Dw__"+e+"__cmpted",hash:"Dw__"+e+"__hash",phash:"Dw__"+e+"__phash"}}function r(){return Math.random(0,1)}function o(e,n,t){return e>=n&&e<=t}function u(e,n){var t,a={};for(t in e[n])"boolean"==typeof e[n][t]&&(a[t]=!!e[n][t]);return a}function d(n){var t,a,i,s=n||{},c=0,m=[];for(a in s)i=e(a),i=i&&i.constructor==Boolean,i&&m.push(a),s.hasOwnProperty(a)&&(t=t||!!s[a]&&!!i,s[a]&& c++);return{match:m,value:!(0!==c?!t:1==Object.keys(s).length)}}var g={each:function(e,n){for(var t,a=0;a-1&&e.splice(n,1),e},addClass:function(e,n){e.classList.add(n)},removeClass:function(e,n){e.classList.remove(n)}},v={};if(t._dw&&t._dw.constructor===Array){for(var h=0;hn?1:0},_=p[this.id()],k=c(n,"name",v),x=!(!i||(f||t||"string"==typeof v||k)&&(!f||d.cur==d.old));if(x)if(_._mset&&_._mset[e])g.each(n,function(n,t){_._mset[e][t.name]&&(k=t)});else{n.sort(y);var w=[],T=0,b=0;g.each(n,function(e,n){var t=n.customOptions&&n.customOptions.target; if(t){t=parseFloat(t)/100,T+=t;var a={value:[b,T]};b+=t,w.push(a)}});var O=r();g.each(w,function(e,n){o(O,n.value[0],n.value[1])&&(v=e)}),k=n[v]}k?this._setLocalItem(u.name,k.name):this._setLocalItem(u.name,"_default"),this._setLocalItem(u.visit,"yes"),this._setLocalItem(u.compute,"yes"),this._setLocalItem(u.hash,d.cur),this._setLocalItem(u.phash,d.cur);var D=k&&(!t||h)&&{name:e,variation:k,collect:!0};return D||(D={name:e}),D.run=x,D},i.prototype._isBlacklisted=function(e){function n(e){return e.replace(/\./g, "\\.").replace(/\-/g,"\\-")}function t(e){var t=new RegExp("^(http://)?(www\\.)?"+n(e),"gi");return!e&&!document.referrer||(e&&document.referrer.match(t)||[]).length>0}var a,i=e||[];return this._ignoreBlacklist||g.each(i,function(e,n){return!(a=t(n))}),a},e("darwin-toolkit:v2.0.0",function(){return!0}),t._dw.push=function(e){p[e[0]]?(p[e[0]]._dispatches[e[1]]&&e[2]&&e[2](p[e[0]]),p[e[0]]._handlers.push(e.slice(1,e.length))):(v[e[0]]||(v[e[0]]=[]),v[e[0]].push(e.slice(1,e.length)))},t._dw}(VisitorSegment, this),function(e){var n=new e("global"),t={};t.trackValueDelimiter=",",t.deferSegments=!0,t.collections=[{name:"fsale",disabled:!1,tests:[{name:"fsale-cem875",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"113bce",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem875:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem875-113bce"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem875:default"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem875-113bce"}]},{name:"fsale-cem938",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"1",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"51fb8e",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"25"},name:"controlB",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem938:controlB"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem938-51fb8e"}]},{customOptions:{target:"25"},name:"carrick",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem938:carrick"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1, value:"fsale-cem938-51fb8e"}]},{customOptions:{target:"25"},name:"strauss",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem938:strauss"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem938-51fb8e"}]},{customOptions:{target:"25"},name:"willis",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem938:willis"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem938-51fb8e"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem938:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem938-51fb8e"}]}, {name:"fsale-cem851",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"d05f8b",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem851:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem851-d05f8b"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem851:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem851-d05f8b"}]},{name:"fsale-cem716",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1", "x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"00ce27",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem716:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem716-00ce27"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"newpen",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem716:newpen"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem716-00ce27"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem716:default"},{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem716-00ce27"}]},{name:"fsale-cem561",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{},_token:"377ae9",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"reg_modal",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem561:reg_modal"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem561-377ae9"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem561:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem561-377ae9"}]},{name:"fsale-cem557",active:!1, "x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"7627f1",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"20"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem557:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem557-7627f1"}]},{customOptions:{target:"80"},name:"newpen",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem557:newpen"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem557-7627f1"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem557:default"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem557-7627f1"}]},{name:"fsale-cem602",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0,pps:!0},_token:"e4c363",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem602:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem602-e4c363"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"newpen",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem602:newpen"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1, value:"fsale-cem602-e4c363"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem602:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem602-e4c363"}]},{name:"fsale-cem514",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"702df9",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem514:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem514-702df9"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"newpen", track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem514:newpen"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem514-702df9"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem514:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"fsale-cem514-702df9"}]}]},{name:"UXTest",disabled:!1,tests:[{name:"UXTest-DES833",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{"read-favorite-authors-article":!0},_token:"953a82",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"833_variant_one", track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES833:833_variant_one"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES833-953a82"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES833:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES833-953a82"}]},{name:"UXTest-DES742d",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{"des-reguser":!0},_token:"72cd8b",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742d:control"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742d-72cd8b"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"des742dfavjournalist",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742d:des742dfavjournalist"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742d-72cd8b"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742d:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742d-72cd8b"}]},{name:"UXTest-DES666",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{},_token:"f13313", variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"producttype",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES666:producttype"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES666-f13313"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"usergoal",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES666:usergoal"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES666-f13313"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES666:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES666-f13313"}]}, {name:"UXTest-DES738",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{beppi_reviews:!0},_token:"bf08e6",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"738_variant_one",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES738:738_variant_one"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES738-bf08e6"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES738:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES738-bf08e6"}]},{name:"UXTest-DES834",active:!1, "x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{"read-favoirte-authors-subsection":!0},_token:"c8fc38",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"834_variant_one",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES834:834_variant_one"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES834-c8fc38"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES834:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES834-c8fc38"}]},{name:"UXTest-DES769",active:!1,"x-persist":!0, "x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{next_story_list:!0},_token:"1949b1",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"25"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES769:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES769-1949b1"}]},{customOptions:{target:"25"},name:"bigger_text",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES769:bigger_text"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES769-1949b1"}]},{customOptions:{target:"25"},name:"bigger_picture", track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES769:bigger_picture"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES769-1949b1"}]},{customOptions:{target:"25"},name:"bigger_text_and_picture",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES769:bigger_text_and_picture"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES769-1949b1"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES769:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES769-1949b1"}]},{name:"UXTest-DES613c",active:!1, "x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{},_token:"39ac99",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"variantbunderneath",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES613c:variantbunderneath"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES613c-39ac99"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES613c:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES613c-39ac99"}]},{name:"UXTest-DES838",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0", increment:0,segment:{primer:!0},_token:"e0a737",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"33"},name:"variant_one",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES838:variant_one"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES838-e0a737"}]},{customOptions:{target:"34"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES838:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES838-e0a737"}]},{customOptions:{target:"33"},name:"variant_two",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES838:variant_two"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES838-e0a737"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES838:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES838-e0a737"}]},{name:"UXTest-DES750",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{next_story:!0},_token:"359d5e",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES750:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES750-359d5e"}]}, {customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"variant_one",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES750:variant_one"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES750-359d5e"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES750:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES750-359d5e"}]},{name:"UXTest-feedfripromo",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{destoronto:!0},_token:"e4d272",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"uxtestff", track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-feedfripromo:uxtestff"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-feedfripromo-e4d272"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-feedfripromo:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-feedfripromo-e4d272"}]},{name:"UXTest-DES870",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"1",increment:0,segment:{toppackages:!0},_token:"5d552a",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"variant_one",track:[{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES870:variant_one"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES870-5d552a"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES870:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES870-5d552a"}]},{name:"UXTest-DES806",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{"stress-test":!0},_token:"a9de68",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"stressed",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES806:stressed"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES806-a9de68"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES806:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES806-a9de68"}]},{name:"UXTest-DES740",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{author_details:!0},_token:"bdcec1",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES740:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES740-bdcec1"}]}, {customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"variant_one",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES740:variant_one"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES740-bdcec1"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES740:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES740-bdcec1"}]},{name:"UXTest-DES742c",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{desreguser:!0},_token:"67ecb8",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control", track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742c:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742c-67ecb8"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"favcolumnist",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742c:favcolumnist"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742c-67ecb8"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742c:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"UXTest-DES742c-67ecb8"}]}]},{name:"regwall",disabled:!1,tests:[{name:"regwall-cem734", active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{reg_control:!0,reg_custom:!0},_token:"d400a9",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"reg",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem734:reg"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem734-d400a9"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem734:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem734-d400a9"}]},{name:"regwall-cem561",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1", "x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{},_token:"01a4eb",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"reg_modal",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem561:reg_modal"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem561-01a4eb"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem561:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem561-01a4eb"}]},{name:"regwall-cem351",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:1,segment:{reg:!0},_token:"0d247d", variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"c_reg",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem351:c_reg"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem351-0d247d"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"n_reg",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem351:n_reg"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem351-0d247d"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem351:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem351-0d247d"}]},{name:"regwall-cem351_v1", active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:1,segment:{reg:!0},_token:"818352",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"c_reg",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem351_v1:c_reg"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem351_v1-818352"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"n_regA",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem351_v1:n_regA"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem351_v1-818352"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1, value:"regwall-cem351_v1:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"regwall-cem351_v1-818352"}]}]},{name:"pencil",disabled:!1,tests:[{name:"pencil-cem846",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{canada:!0},_token:"6e939d",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"behindthes",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem846:behindthes"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem846-6e939d"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem846:default"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem846-6e939d"}]},{name:"pencil-cem802",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"2fcdbf",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem802:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem802-2fcdbf"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"experience",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem802:experience"},{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem802-2fcdbf"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem802:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem802-2fcdbf"}]},{name:"pencil-cem858",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{"custom-sect":!0},_token:"94b28d",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"camh",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem858:camh"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem858-94b28d"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem858:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem858-94b28d"}]},{name:"pencil-cem774",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{"custom-sect":!0},_token:"27f594",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"behindthes",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem774:behindthes"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem774-27f594"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem774:default"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem774-27f594"}]},{name:"pencil-cem586_v4",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"3709e5",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"75"},name:"o_gold",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v4:o_gold"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v4-3709e5"}]},{customOptions:{target:"25"},name:"n_gold",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v4:n_gold"},{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v4-3709e5"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v4:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v4-3709e5"}]},{name:"pencil-cem640",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{disp:!0,pps:!0},_token:"09df06",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"ads",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem640:ads"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem640-09df06"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem640:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem640-09df06"}]},{name:"pencil-cemtest",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{},_token:"171138",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"test",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cemtest:test"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cemtest-171138"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cemtest:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1, value:"pencil-cemtest-171138"}]},{name:"pencil-cem765",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{realev:!0},_token:"ab7fce",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"scotchTalkv",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem765:scotchTalkv"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem765-ab7fce"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem765:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem765-ab7fce"}]},{name:"pencil-cem615", active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{anony:!0},_token:"495d11",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem615:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem615-495d11"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"rgrowl",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem615:rgrowl"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem615-495d11"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem615:default"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem615-495d11"}]},{name:"pencil-cem586_v1",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"3b1cd6",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"gold",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v1:gold"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v1-3b1cd6"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"red",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v1:red"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1, value:"pencil-cem586_v1-3b1cd6"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v1:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v1-3b1cd6"}]},{name:"pencil-cem745",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{halifax:!0},_token:"a80b7d",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"fixedpencil2",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem745:fixedpencil2"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem745-a80b7d"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem745:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem745-a80b7d"}]},{name:"pencil-cem760",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{humantraffic:!0},_token:"c949c1",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"ads",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem760:ads"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem760-c949c1"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem760:default"},{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem760-c949c1"}]},{name:"pencil-cem586_v3",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"d18019",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"gold",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v3:gold"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v3-d18019"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"grey",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v3:grey"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v3-d18019"}]}], defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v3:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v3-d18019"}]},{name:"pencil-cem594",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{sub:!0},_token:"a8f2f0",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"lexusV1",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem594:lexusV1"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem594-a8f2f0"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"lexusV2",track:[{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem594:lexusV2"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem594-a8f2f0"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem594:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem594-a8f2f0"}]},{name:"pencil-cem790",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{"custom-sect":!0},_token:"7b06d7",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"summit",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem790:summit"},{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem790-7b06d7"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem790:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem790-7b06d7"}]},{name:"pencil-cem733",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{mbs:!0},_token:"3ed35d",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"ads",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem733:ads"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem733-3ed35d"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem733:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem733-3ed35d"}]},{name:"pencil-cem635",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{auct:!0},_token:"d04749",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"auctp",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem635:auctp"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem635-d04749"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem635:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1, value:"pencil-cem635-d04749"}]},{name:"pencil-cem572",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"2855cf",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem572:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem572-2855cf"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"newpen",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem572:newpen"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem572-2855cf"}]}], defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem572:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem572-2855cf"}]},{name:"pencil-cem746",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{arts:!0},_token:"09d48b",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"bestdress",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem746:bestdress"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem746-09d48b"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem746:default"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem746-09d48b"}]},{name:"pencil-cem737",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{reale:!0},_token:"6e5783",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"fixedpencil",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem737:fixedpencil"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem737-6e5783"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"inlinepencil",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem737:inlinepencil"},{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem737-6e5783"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem737:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem737-6e5783"}]},{name:"pencil-cem586_v2",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"665185",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"gold_v0",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v2:gold_v0"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v2-665185"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"}, name:"gold_v1",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v2:gold_v1"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v2-665185"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v2:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586_v2-665185"}]},{name:"pencil-cem586",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nonsub:!0},_token:"95c651",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"gold",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1, value:"pencil-cem586:gold"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586-95c651"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"pencil-cem586-95c651"}]}]},{name:"paywall",disabled:!1,tests:[{name:"paywall-cem694",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{crossw:!0},_token:"355793",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem694:control"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem694-355793"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"ncrossw",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem694:ncrossw"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem694-355793"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem694:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem694-355793"}]},{name:"paywall-cem322_v2",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{red:!0,thresh:!0},_token:"cab1a8", variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v2:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v2-cab1a8"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"jmwall",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v2:jmwall"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v2-cab1a8"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v2:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v2-cab1a8"}]}, {name:"paywall-cem486",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"1",increment:0,segment:{red:!0,thresh:!0},_token:"b4a7ba",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"video",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem486:video"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem486-b4a7ba"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem486:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem486-b4a7ba"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem486:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem486-b4a7ba"}]},{name:"paywall-cem322",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{red:!0,thresh:!0},_token:"86f4e7",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322-86f4e7"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"newwall",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1, value:"paywall-cem322:newwall"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322-86f4e7"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322-86f4e7"}]},{name:"paywall-cem322_v1",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{red:!0,thresh:!0},_token:"0fa017",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v1:control"},{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v1-0fa017"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"jmwall",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v1:jmwall"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v1-0fa017"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v1:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem322_v1-0fa017"}]},{name:"paywall-cem590",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"1",increment:1,segment:{red:!0,thresh:!0},_token:"c6469a", variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem590:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem590-c6469a"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"resp",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem590:resp"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem590-c6469a"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem590:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"paywall-cem590-c6469a"}]}]},{name:"newsletter", disabled:!1,tests:[{name:"newsletter-cem553",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{drive:!0,talert:!0,life:!0,fwine:!0,style:!0,news:!0,pol:!0,inves:!0,carr:!0,mupdate:!0,bus:!0,swise:!0,restate:!0,sb:!0},_token:"1c914e",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"dismiss",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"newsletter-cem553:dismiss"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"newsletter-cem553-1c914e"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"newsletter-cem553:default"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"newsletter-cem553-1c914e"}]},{name:"newsletter-CEM469",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{is_logged:!0,is_anony:!0},_token:"78b9cd",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"pencil",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"newsletter-CEM469:pencil"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"newsletter-CEM469-78b9cd"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"modal",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"newsletter-CEM469:modal"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"newsletter-CEM469-78b9cd"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"newsletter-CEM469:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"newsletter-CEM469-78b9cd"}]}]},{name:"gufunnel",disabled:!1,tests:[{name:"gufunnel-test",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{test2:!0},_token:"b40916",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"test3",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-test:test3"},{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-test-b40916"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-test:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-test-b40916"}]},{name:"gufunnel-cem451_v1",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{anony:!0,loggedin:!0},_token:"85f8f0",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451_v1:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451_v1-85f8f0"}]}, {customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"expA",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451_v1:expA"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451_v1-85f8f0"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451_v1:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451_v1-85f8f0"}]},{name:"gufunnel-cem575",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{nsub:!0},_token:"d84518",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"subs", track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem575:subs"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem575-d84518"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem575:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem575-d84518"}]},{name:"gufunnel-cem451",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:3,segment:{anony:!0,loggedin:!0},_token:"fc4608",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"98"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451:control"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451-fc4608"}]},{customOptions:{target:"1"},name:"expA",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451:expA"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451-fc4608"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"gufunnel-cem451-fc4608"}]}]},{name:"header",disabled:!1,tests:[{name:"header-cem631",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{"anony-c":!0}, _token:"c740b5",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"expB",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"header-cem631:expB"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"header-cem631-c740b5"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"header-cem631:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"header-cem631-c740b5"}]}]},{name:"products",disabled:!1,tests:[{name:"products-cem936",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{"c-sect1":!0},_token:"41c5c3",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"}, name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem936:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem936-41c5c3"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"experience",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem936:experience"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem936-41c5c3"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem936:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem936-41c5c3"}]},{name:"products-cem911",active:!0, "x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{"life-sect":!0},_token:"c7e675",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem911:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem911-c7e675"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"experience",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem911:experience"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem911-c7e675"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem911:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem911-c7e675"}]},{name:"products-cem647",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{prodpg:!0},_token:"4825f8",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"control",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem647:control"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem647-4825f8"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"newmsg",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1, value:"products-cem647:newmsg"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem647-4825f8"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem647:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem647-4825f8"}]},{name:"products-cem724",active:!1,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{print:!0,gu:!0},_token:"0df925",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"100"},name:"robdownloads",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem724:robdownloads"}, {name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem724-0df925"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem724:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem724-0df925"}]},{name:"products-cem768",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:0,segment:{"c-sect1":!0},_token:"46fa8c",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"expA",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem768:expA"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem768-46fa8c"}]}, {customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"expB",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem768:expB"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem768-46fa8c"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem768:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem768-46fa8c"}]},{name:"products-cem728",active:!0,"x-persist":!0,"x-status":"1","x-linked":"0",increment:1,segment:{"c-sect":!0},_token:"76c717",variations:[{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"green",track:[{name:"ensighten", dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem728:green"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem728-76c717"}]},{customOptions:{target:"50"},name:"gray",track:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem728:gray"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem728-76c717"}]}],defaultTrack:[{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem728:default"},{name:"ensighten",dynamic:!1,value:"products-cem728-76c717"}]}]}],n.config(t),this.__dwCallback__?this.__dwCallback__(n):n.init()}(this._dw)}(); Skip footer navigation Subscribe Business Services Contact Us Reader Services About Us Subscribe Business Services Contact Us Reader Services About Us Return to start of footer navigation
  • An IDX Broker Integration Supplies Pam Charrons Clients with Easy-to-use Search Tools for their Online Real Estate ... (dBusinessNews.com)
  • Are you a real estate agent who went into another line of work due to the housing market slowdown? (The News-Press)
  • Rate on 30-year fixed mortgage rises to 4.80 pct.
  • Kuwait tops real estate investors in UK -- Minister Al-Shimali (Zawya)
  • Board of Trade talks real estate at AGM (Brampton Guardian)
  • RBC raises residential fixed-rate mortgage rates by up to 0.35 percentage points (The Canadian Press via Yahoo! Canada News)
  • WEB EXTRA: Real estate agent invites you to share torch experience (Comox Valley Record)
  • Banff real estate broker enters PC race
  • Owner of Porkys in talks to sell drive-ins building for relocation
  • Feds, 10 states join to fight mortgage fraud (AP via Yahoo! Finance)
  • Mortgage rates remain below 5%, fall to 4.95% (USA Today)
  • Vero Beach council steps back to allow larger real estate signs
  • Master broker named to market fort properties
  • Residential real estate transfers, March 26
  • Zephyr Real Estates Meyer Offers Real Estate Support Services for Seniors (Marketwire via Yahoo! Finance)
  • A real estate education from law enforcement pros (The Register Citizen)
  • Tim Leigh: Real estate broker, council candidate and birthday boy
  • Iowa real estate broker pleads guilty to fraud
  • Flats for poor going to rich Indonesians