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Real estate job sector balloons in B.C.


The British Columbia Real Estate Association says the province's 11 separate real estate boards have over 22,000 licensed agents. The Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver says it oversees over 14,000 of those. Andy Yan, director of the Simon Fraser ...

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@media (max-width:79.99rem) and (min-width:61.25rem){html.layout-story-2 .title-content--story>.l-row>.pb-container{-ms-flex:0 0 61.25rem;flex:0 0 61.25rem;max-width:61.25rem}}@media (min-width:61.25rem){.title-content--story.l-col-md-8{-webkit-box-flex:0;-ms-flex:0 0 60rem;flex:0 0 60rem;max-width:60rem}}@media (min-width:80rem){.title-content--story.l-col-lg-8{-webkit-box-flex:0;-ms-flex:0 0 70rem;flex:0 0 70rem;max-width:70rem}} .c-comments{margin-bottom:26px} .c-article-list__item-content a[href="/canada/british-columbia/article-story-will-return/"]{display:none !important} Real estate job sector balloons in B.C

Open this photo in gallery: After a ‘mid-life crisis,’ Jerome Deis turned a real estate hobby into a full-time job and now ranks among the top 10 per cent of Vancouver realtors

BEN NELMS/The Globe & Mail Kerry Gold Vancouver Special to The Globe and Mail Published March 8, 2018 Updated March 8, 2018 For Subscribers { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ReportageNewsArticle", "mainEntityOfPage": "https://www.theglobeandmail.com/real-estate/vancouver/bcs-real-estate-boom-a-boon-for-job-seekers/article38220961/", "headline": "Real estate job sector balloons in B.C.", "datePublished": "" ,"author": [ { "@type": "Person", "name": "Kerry Gold", "url": "https://www.theglobeandmail.com/authors/kerry-gold", "affiliation": { "@type": "Organization", "name": "The Globe and Mail" } } ] ,"image": { "@type":"ImageObject", "representativeOfPage":true, "url":"https://www.theglobeandmail.com/resizer/1qyD7-q0NjnDXD_9zeRt5Yuwrv8=/2048x0/filters:quality(80)/arc-anglerfish-tgam-prod-tgam.s3.amazonaws.com/public/WIBN257JXRCHXCNEGRJZTWK7VM.JPG", "width":"2048", "height":"1365", "description":"After a ‘mid-life crisis,’ Jerome Deis turned a real estate hobby into a full-time job and now ranks among the top 10 per cent of Vancouver realtors." }, "thumbnailUrl":"https://www.theglobeandmail.com/resizer/syYcz5mD1tlfnidjoivwYA5hjhA=/620x0/filters:quality(80)/arc-anglerfish-tgam-prod-tgam.s3.amazonaws.com/public/WIBN257JXRCHXCNEGRJZTWK7VM.JPG" , "publisher": { "@type":"Organization", "name":"The Globe and Mail", "url":"https://www.theglobeandmail.com", "sameAs":["https://www.facebook.com/theglobeandmail/","https://twitter.com/globeandmail","https://plus.google.com/+globeandmail/","https://www.youtube.com/user/TheGlobeandMail"], "logo": { "@type":"ImageObject", "url": "https://www.theglobeandmail.com/resources/assets/img/tgam-logo.png", "width": 310, "height": 36 } } } British Columbia's addiction to real estate has created a job sector that's ballooned over the past decade, with real estate jobs growing 53 per cent in the Lower Mainland

In the province, full-time jobs related to real estate have grown 39 per cent in that time span

Those jobs don't include construction jobs, which grew in the Lower Mainland by 27 per cent from 2007 to 2017, according to Stats Can data

Real estate jobs, which would include appraisers, property managers and realtors, have outpaced B.C.'s traditional forestry and logging jobs, which dropped 23 per cent, and fishing and hunting, which dropped 21 per cent

Over all, employment went up 12 per cent

Story continues below advertisement In terms of numbers, there are 51,000 jobs in the real estate sector in B.C., not including part-time positions

Forestry accounts for 18,600 jobs, and fishing and hunting 2,300 jobs

Mining grew by 47 per cent, with 28,900 jobs

The British Columbia Real Estate Association says the province's 11 separate real estate boards have over 22,000 licensed agents

The Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver says it oversees over 14,000 of those

Andy Yan, director of the Simon Fraser University's City Program, summarized a recently released BC Stats tabulation on employment and unemployment rate by industry

Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey originally collected the data

"From a celebrated history as hewers of wood and drawers of water, B.C.'s economic present and future is being shaped by purveyors of real estate," says Mr

Yan

Mr

Yan is referencing economist Harold Innis' famous line regarding Canada's long-standing dependence on resource extraction

Those days appear to be over

Jock Finlayson, economist and chief policy officer for Business Council of B.C., says that people believe real estate, particularly sales, is a high-income profession that requires little training or education

Those jobs are likely on the rise because they are seen as easy money, especially when agents at the top of their game are earning millions of dollars

"A lot of people are attracted to the industry because of the perception that there is a lot of money to be made, and of course there has been for those who are very successful, an extraordinary amount of money," he says

Story continues below advertisement Story continues below advertisement "It's quite astonishing, the commission sales model in the real estate industry

It has seemingly been impervious to technological change and innovation that in so many other industries has driven out the extra costs around transactions

"Think of the securities business, where commissions on stock trading have fallen astronomically in North America in the past 20 or 25 years … I have a discount broker account at TD Waterhouse, I can trade $100,000 worth of shares for $7 or whatever

"We've seen this taking out of the middle person in so many industries, but residential real estate has been slow to see the change, and in a strong market environment like what we have now, the successful agents are reaping extraordinary incomes and that's attracting all kinds of people to the industry." It helps that it can be a high-paying profession that doesn't require a lot of education or training

"This surge of people into the real estate sales field reflects very low barriers to entry, which I would emphasize," he says

"If you want to be a doctor or a lawyer or an engineer or architect, or even an economist for that matter, it takes years." However, relatively few people are going to become millionaires selling real estate, even in Vancouver, he cautions

Story continues below advertisement "What I hear from people and I do know a number in the industry, is that 15 to 20 per cent of the agents are the ones reaping the lion's share of the commissions, in good times and bad

So there are a lot of people drawn in as a 'get rich quick' kind of dream, and most will not succeed in that

"And if the market softens and transactions diminish, which I think they will … then you will see people exiting the industry for sure." When people enter real estate sales, they think of realtors such as Jerome Deis

He had been at Telus for more than 26 years and was a mid-level manager having a "mid-life crisis" at age 45

He decided to make his real estate hobby a full-time job

Two weeks after getting his license he sold his first property

It helped that he had a wide network of friends and acquaintances

People who get started later in life have that advantage, he says

A dozen years later, he's in the top 10 per cent of realtors in Vancouver, which is an exclusive club

"Some of these west side realtors are selling $3-million or $4-million houses, and do 12 or 15 sales a year

Do the math

"It's fair to say some top realtors in my office that make over $750,000 or $1 million a year, year after year

But they work like dogs." That would be gross commissions, not including taxes and the expense of running a business or support staff

Realtors can charge whatever commission they choose, but realtor Ian Watt says generally it's around 7 per cent on the first $100,000 and 2.5 per cent on the remainder

The buyer's realtor gets 3.255 per cent on the first $100,000 and 1.1625 per cent on the remainder

Mr

Deis is also a teacher for the Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver, teaching orientation courses to people who've already completed the real estate trading services licencing course offered by the Sauder School of Business at University of B.C

The course can be taken part time or full time

Mr

Deis completed the course in about eight weeks, he says

In order to access the Multiple Listings Service, licenced realtors must join the real estate board and take two orientation classes

Realtors are required to take a refresher course every two years to retain their license

Mr

Deis says about 1,200 new realtors are taking the orientation classes

And a lot of people do real estate transactions on a part-time basis while working at another job

Some builders will get their licenses in order to sell the houses they construct

"You get a real mix, yes you get the young, you get the people changing careers mid life, and also the people finished their careers at a corporation and want to do something different, like myself." In the last five years, while the housing market has been peaking, he's seen a consistently high number or students, and some definitely think it's a lucrative career

"They think, 'I see that realtor he shows a few houses, drives a nice car, I think it's easy I think I can do that too.' They don't understand and realize it's not one or two hours a day and you make all this money

It's 10 or 12 hours a day, seven days a week and your running your own business," he says

"If you're young and wanting to make a fast buck, it's probably not the business for you long term

You might sell your mom's house for $5-million and your cousin's house, and then, that will be it." Mr

Finlayson doesn't see the spike in real estate transaction related jobs as healthy, or even viable, in the long term

"I'm one of many people who've benefited from it I suppose, but it's not healthy for the economy to have so much activity, and so much capital and so much entrepreneurial talent channeled into what I call the residential real estate complex, which is housing construction, home renovation and real estate transactions," says Mr

Finlayson

"I say that because those are not the activities that build the foundations of a productive, competitive, innovative economy … It seems billions are being spent on renovation and home building

I think if those resources, both financial resources and also the human resources, were put to other uses, like building tech companies, or developing software, or investing in early childhood development, the payoff to our society long-term would be so much greater than it's going to be from what we're seeing

"The last thing we need is more people going into real estate sales." Vic Jang became a realtor in 1985 and is now president and co-owner of Sutton West Coast, with 25 offices throughout the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island

With the increase in house prices, he's also seen an increase in hopeful new realtors the last decade

"People think, 'If I just sell three houses it is the same amount of work as working full-time all year

But this is the reality, and it's probably pretty close: 50 per cent of the realtors make $50,000 a year or less, before expenses and taxes

Another 20 per cent will make somewhere in the $100,000 to $150,000 mark." Expenses are high, with leased car payments, gas, marketing, and staff, if you want them

And top earners will work around 80 hours a week, he says

As for the market slowing due to new government taxes aimed at speculation, as well as mortgage stress-test rules, Mr

Jang doesn't seen it slowing enough to return housing to a local income-earner market

"It's probably safe to say the average price of a west side home is $2.5-million

We would need it to go from $2.5[-million] to $1.2 million [to be more affordable for local incomes]

"And most homeowners on the east side or west side don't need to sell their homes, so we see less inventory

Why would I sell? Where would I go? There's nothing to buy

"I cannot see the market making a shift enough that it will make a significant difference." Follow Kerry Gold on Twitter @goldiein604 Report an error Editorial code of conduct Comments are closed We have closed comments on this story for legal reasons or for abuse

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bitcoin, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"cryptocurrency"},"VSURXLKQYVFQPHSJ3VNBRAQHA4":{"time":"45","title":"What is cap-and-trade?","text":"A \x3cstrong\x3ecap-and-trade\x3c/strong\x3e system sets a limit on the amount of carbon that companies are permitted to burn when operating in the territory where the system is in place

It also offers the option for companies to buy the right to burn more than their quota, by purchasing permits (also known as carbon credits) from companies that burn less

By doing that, they exchange their right to emit greenhouse gases; that\u2019s the \u201ctrade\u201d part

The government also makes money on those permits, since it runs the auctions for them.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nCap-and-trade is not the same thing as a \x3cstrong\x3ecarbon tax\x3c/strong\x3e, which makes companies and consumers pay for every tonne of carbon burned \u2013 just like drivers pay by the litre to burn gas in their cars, but at a larger scale

Both a carbon tax and cap-and-trade have the same goal: to give companies a financial incentive to reduce their emissions

They just go about it differently.", "refVal":"CapAndTrade","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho does cap-and-trade in Canada?\x3c/strong\x3e\u202f\u200bQuebec has had a system in place since 2013, and later joined up with California so that credits could be traded between those territories

Ontario implemented its system last year, and committed to joining Quebec and California in future auctions

Doug Ford has vowed to scrap this plan when he becomes premier

"}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho has a carbon tax?\x3c/strong\x3e\u202fBritish Columbia, since 2008."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eCould there be more soon?\x3c/strong\x3e\u202f\u200bIn 2018, the federal government announced legislation that would require every province to implement a carbon-pricing system by 2019

The move follows a commitment to greenhouse gas reduction targets that the Trudeau government signed at the Paris climate conference in 2015; since then it has faced resistance\u202fto a national carbon-pricing framework from some provinces, particularly Saskatchewan

"}]}, "JPUOTC3Q55BGZNNP2CVN6KKEDQ":{"refVal":"softwood","title":"What is softwood and why has it been in the news so many times over the years?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the dispute over softwood lumber?","time":"55","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","text":"Softwood lumber (as opposed to hardwood) includes woods like cedar and pine that are widely used in construction, furniture building, and woodwork

The U.S

and Canada have repeatedly butted heads over softwood because of NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement.) Free trade removes most tariffs (i.e

taxes on imported goods) between the countries, but the U.S

has tried to impose tariffs on Canadian softwood lumber before

Why? Because in Canada, timber is grown mostly on public land and the U.S

argues that the provinces charge Canadian producers lower rates to cut it down than American companies pay when harvesting mostly on private property

When costs to make a product are low, a company can keep prices low too \u2013 and the U.S

contends this has allowed Canadian softwood companies to keep their prices artificially low, and compete unfairly with American producers

Because of\u202fa dispute resolution system imposed by\u202fNAFTA, the U.S

has been forced to scale back\u202fretaliatory tariffs\u202f that it slapped\u202fon Canadian softwood\u202fin the past.\u202fMore recently, the U.S

imposed tariffs again, which began to impact Canadian softwood producers in 2017."}, "AA2KN4IPIVF2VGT6PDGB7V3MQQ":{"time":"50","title":"What is a tariff?","text":"A tariff is a fee, similar to a tax, that a government charges to a foreign company for bringing its goods into the country

Tariffs are usually placed on certain categories of products, such as dairy or aluminium

That\u2019s because tariffs are partly motivated by the government\u2019s desire to protect a domestic industry by making it more expensive for foreign companies to compete on their turf (tariffs might also lead those foreign companies to raise prices to compensate for that extra cost, making their products less attractive to consumers than the homemade version)

Tariffs are usually expressed as a percentage of a product\u2019s value

For example, if Country A imposes a 10% tariff on steel products, and a steel company headquartered in Country B wants to bring in $500,000 worth of steel over the border to sell there, the company would have to pay $50,000 to Country A

So tariffs are also a source of revenue for governments

Tariffs are one of the restrictions on cross-border trade that are frequently lifted as part of free trade deals.", "refVal":"tariff","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(1)","more":[{"text":'\x3cstrong\x3eAre tariffs and duties the same thing?\x3c/strong\x3e Effectively, yes -- but there is a distinction

Specifically, "tariff" is an umbrella term for these import taxes described above; the "duty" refers to the amount charged (25 per cent, for example.) But while the distinction matters in legal terms, you\'ll frequently see these words used interchangeably

'}]}, "6IQBV7RNSJHAXNNDU4RELWVMHI":{"refVal":"nafta","title":"Need a quick catch-up on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","time":"40","text":"Free trade, in general, allows for an easier flow of goods and labour across international borders

When NAFTA (the North American Free Trade Agreement) went into effect in 1994 \u2013 expanding a 1988 Canada-U.S

agreement and bringing in Mexico \u2013 it created the biggest free-trade area in the world

Trade with the U.S

is hugely important to Canada\u2019s economy; thanks to NAFTA, Canadian exports to the American market soared

The agreement gradually eliminated most tariffs (i.e

taxes on imported goods) between the three countries \u2013 though not all, and that has caused some disputes

The deal has become more contentious since the election of U.S

President Donald Trump, who declared an \u201cAmerica-first\u201d trade policy and has threatened to pull out of NAFTA

The deal is currently being renegotiated.", "more":[{"text":"Free trade eliminates restrictions to products moving across borders \u2013 restrictions like tariffs (a fee a country charges at the border on products coming in from other countries \u2013 making it more expensive for foreign companies to trade there than homegrown ones); quotas (limits on the amount of a certain kind of product that a country allows across its border) and subsidies (any kind of support that helps a certain sector to compete.)"},{"text":"Here are a few examples of issues on the table in the negotiations."}, {"text":"1) Trump blames NAFTA for moving auto manufacturing jobs to Mexico \u2013 and he wants new rules that would push automakers to bring that work back to America."},{"text":"2) American farmers want to sell more of their products here, but one area of trade untouched by NAFTA is Canada\u2019s \u201csupply management\u201d system for milk, eggs and poultry that imposes tariffs on imports (it also sets prices and imposes quotas on farmers to restrict how much product goes to market.)"},{"text":"3) NAFTA has an independent dispute resolution process, which settles some trade fights through special panels rather than any of the countries\u2019 court systems

(You\u2019ll frequently hear this System referred to as Chapter 19.) Canada has used this system in disputes with the U.S

over softwood lumber

(Softwood, as opposed to hardwood, includes woods like cedar and pine that are widely used in construction, furniture building, and woodwork.) The U.S

and Canada have repeatedly butted heads over softwood: in Canada, timber is grown mostly on public land and the U.S

argues that the provinces charge Canadian producers lower rates to cut it down than American companies pay when harvesting mostly on private property

When costs to make a product are low, a company can keep prices low too \u2013 and the U.S

contends this has allowed Canadian softwood companies to keep their prices artificially low, and compete unfairly with American producers

But because of NAFTA\u2019s dispute resolution system, the U.S

was prevented from slapping retaliatory tariffs on Canadian softwood

The U.S

wants this system gone."}]}, "7SIGPPADGBG5HNMJ7KO4G2GDVU":{"refVal":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","title":"Need some background on Trans Mountain?","time":"60","text":"The Trans Mountain oil pipeline already exists; the project that has been making headlines is a plan to expand it

Currently, the pipeline carries about 300,000 barrels of Alberta oil to the B.C

coast per day

The pipeline\u2019s owner, Texas-based oil and gas transport company Kinder Morgan, has been trying since 2012 to build hundreds of kilometres of new pipe alongside the existing route, nearly tripling its capacity at an estimated cost of $7.4-billion

More oil down the pipeline will mean a sevenfold increase in oil tankers in the Vancouver port, and critics have raised concerns about the risk of a disastrous spill in those waters

The project has set off a highly politicized spat between B.C

and Alberta

Now, in order to ensure the project goes ahead, the Trudeau government has agreed to buy the pipeline from Kinder Morgan for $4.5-billion (not including further construction and labour costs)

The government plans to sell off the assets to a private owner at a later date

It is not clear how the government will handle opposition to the project, how much it will cost taxpayers overall, and when it will go ahead.", "more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho\u2019s against it?\x3c/strong\x3e B.C.\u2019s NDP government under Premier John Horgan promised to kill the project

Some B.C

residents are concerned about the risk of a major oil spill in coastal waters

Many First Nations along the pipeline route are opposed, but not all."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho\u2019s for it?\x3c/strong\x3e Some Indigenous nations have signed agreements supporting it

The federal Liberal government approved the expansion project in 2016

Alberta Premier Rachel Notley needs the revenues from the pipeline to support her NDP government\u2019s plan to balance the province\u2019s budget

Alberta\u2019s oil and gas sector had high hopes for Trans Mountain after other major pipeline projects \u2014 TransCanada\u2019s Keystone XL (Alberta to Nebraska), Enbridge\u2019s Northern Gateway (Alberta to B.C.) and TransCanada\u2019s Energy East (Alberta to Quebec and New Brunswick) -- hit roadblocks in Canada

U.S

oil-industry leaders and major Canadian banks also support it."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe politics:\x3c/strong\x3e Both Ms

Notley in Alberta and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau face elections in 2019

The project\u2019s failure could weaken support for both of them in Alberta: the province\u2019s United Conservative Party, led by Jason Kenney, has put pressure on them to see it through

Mr

Trudeau\u2019s government has said that the environment and Indigenous people are priorities, but has also committed to opening Canada\u2019s natural resources to global markets."}]}, "HZNWU4K2TRB3LJDMC2HWSIWQAU":{"refVal":"supply","title":"What is supply management? ","time":"40","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(20)","text":"Canada has a \u201csupply management\u201d system for milk, eggs and poultry that imposes tariffs (i.e

taxes on imported goods) on these types of products coming from other countries

It also sets prices and imposes quotas on Canadian farmers to restrict how much product goes to market

In some cases, this means when there is too much supply in the market, farmers have to throw out their products

Some economic studies have shown that the system increases the prices Canadian consumers pay for their eggs, cheese, milk and butter at the grocery store

This system is a problem for Canada\u2019s largest trading partner too, because American farmers want to sell more of their products here

For that reason, supply management has become a sticking point in the negotiations over NAFTA (the North American free-trade agreement.)"}, "RF7YFBYWTNCWXCWF423M2OV2FU":{"refVal":"G7","title":"What is the G7?","time":"35","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"The G7 is an informal group of seven wealthy countries that meet each year to discuss issues including international trade, economic considerations such as employment and globalization, climate policy, security concerns, and their approach to the developing world, among other matters

Its members are the U.S., Canada, France, Germany, Italy and Japan and the United Kingdom

The group has existed since 1975 when it was founded by six countries; Canada joined the next year

Its meetings are important opportunities for leaders of major world powers to gather, form relationships, and discuss policy objectives

However the group has been criticized for not always following through on its policy goals, because its meetings are informal and decisions are not enforced on member countries.", "more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eIs it different from the G8?\x3c/strong\x3e The G7 used to be the G8 but following Russia\u2019s military actions in Ukraine in 2014, the other countries decided no longer to include Russia as an expression of their disapproval of the annexation of Crimea."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhat is the G20?\x3c/strong\x3e The G7 has been criticized for excluding emerging powers such as China, Mexico, Brazil and India

The G20 is a broader group that includes these countries as well as the EU

(Russia remains in the G20 as well.) Its finance ministers and central bank governors meet to discuss economic matters; for example, the countries all coordinated efforts to address the global financial crisis in 2008."}]}, "AZSKYYHD45FDDDB675QFQQ4NLU":{"refVal":"sources","title":"How does the Globe use anonymous sources?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(39)","time":"40","text":"When you see a phrase like \u201caccording to sources with knowledge of the matter,\u201d or \u201csources said,\u201d the name of that source of information has been excluded

This is not done lightly

Sometimes key details in a story cannot be told without protecting a source who risks retribution for speaking to the press

The reporter always knows who the source is, and at the Globe, an editor must approve the decision to grant anonymity

Reporters are encouraged to describe the person with as much detail as possible so you understand their expertise and why their name is not used

Direct quotes are not used if they simply express opinions \u2013 we do not grant anonymity to allow a source to criticize or attack others without having to be accountable for what they say."}, "RCEH5L4SJRFUPDNFIFH6ULTLIA":{"refVal":"Russia","title":"Need a quick catch-up on the Russia investigation? ","time":"65","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"This investigation is looking into alleged interference by Russia in the 2016 U.S

presidential election, and whether anyone on Donald Trump\u2019s campaign was involved, during or after the race

The U.S Justice Department and the FBI launched the investigation, which is led by special counsel Robert Mueller

It\u2019s the largest probe of ties between Russia and the Trump campaign (others, including the Senate intelligence committee, Senate judiciary committee, House intelligence committee and House oversight committee are also investigating)

So far, it has resulted in Mueller bringing charges against Russian hackers for interfering in the election, and against some Trump campaign associates for lying to the FBI and for laundering money

The investigation is primarily focused on two crimes: 1) Collusion

Did the Russian government hack into the servers of the Democratic National Committee (the arm of the Democratic Party that supports candidates seeking election) \u2013 leaking confidential e-mails to whistleblower website Wikileaks \u2013 in order to help the Trump campaign? And did anyone on the Trump campaign work with Russians who interfered in the election? 2) Obstruction of justice

Did Mr

Trump attempt to interfere with the investigation into that first question? All of the investigations, including Mueller\u2019s, will end with reports on what they found (though Mueller\u2019s report may not necessarily be made public.) It is not clear how long this will take

", "more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhat are the collusion allegations?\x3c/strong\x3e The FBI, other intelligence agencies and the Justice Department allege that hackers who broke into the Democratic National Committee\u2019s servers in July of 2016 were working on behalf of the Russian government \u2013 and that they leaked embarrassing e-mails to Wikileaks in order to sway the election in favour of Donald Trump

(Among other things, the e-mails showed that the DNC \u2013 which is supposed to be neutral \u2013 favoured Hillary Clinton for the party\u2019s presidential candidate over her competitor for the nomination, Bernie Sanders.) There are indications, which the investigators are looking into, that people in Mr

Trump\u2019s circle knew about the hack

At the time, Mr

Trump publicly stated that Russia should hack into Ms

Clinton\u2019s e-mails and release them."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhat are the obstruction allegations?\x3c/strong\x3e The investigation into the DNC e-mail hack started immediately after it happened, in July of 2016, when the election campaign was still ongoing

At first, FBI James Comey was leading the investigation, but, a few months after taking office, Mr

Trump fired him, in May, 2017

The White House said Mr

Comey\u2019s dismissal had to do with his performance at the FBI; Mr

Comey has said it was a result of the Russia investigation

Mr

Trump later said in a TV interview that when he decided to fire Mr

Comey, \u201cI said to myself, I said, \u2018You know, this Russia thing with Trump and Russia is a made-up story.\u2019\u201d Mr

Comey told a Senate committee hearing that Mr

Trump attempted to meddle in the investigation more than once, including asking Mr

Comey to \u201clift the cloud\u201d that the probe had caused over his administration

Mr

Comey\u2019s firing was widely decried, and led to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein (acting in the place of attorney general Jeff Sessions, who has recused himself from the investigation) to appoint special counsel Robert Mueller to take over the probe."}]}, "LXPMRQOYHVCHBM6HAQGBD2KTBI":{"refVal":"ai","title":"What is AI? Is it different from machine learning?","time":"30","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","text":"The basic difference between these two terms is the difference between the concept of intelligence, and the process of learning.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\x3cstrong\x3eArtificial intelligence (AI)\x3c/strong\x3e is a term dating back to the \u201950s, when it was defined as \u201cthe science and engineering of making intelligent machines.\u201d When we talk about AI, we\u2019re usually talking broadly about the concept of machines that can develop abilities usually associated with human intelligence \u2013 like learning a language, spontaneously navigating a roadway when driving a car, or spotting the difference between an image of a cat and of a dog.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \x3cstrong\x3eMachine learning\x3c/strong\x3e refers to various methods for developing AI

Many computers function by being explicitly programmed to follow a specific series of instructions; machine learning, in contrast, attempts to train a computer to complete tasks or solve problems on its own

People have been working on this for decades

Why are you hearing so much about it now? Because only in recent years have our computers been fast enough, and able to process large enough sets of information, to make more complex developments in machine learning possible."}, "5TDPGHUIPNHSTHXK5BNRKNPAFY":{"refVal":"asylum","title":"What is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ","time":"70","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","text":"People have crossed the land border into Canada in between official border crossings before, but the influx of asylum seekers in 2017 and 2018 is new

More than 7,600 asylum seekers were intercepted by the RCMP from January to April, 2018 \u2013 almost triple the number in the same period the year before

The Globe spoke with a number of those travelers in late 2017, who cited the policies of U.S

President Donald Trump as their reason for making the trip: In January, 2017, Mr

Trump issued a ban on U.S

entry visas for people from seven Muslim-majority countries

Because of court challenges, the ban has changed and now bars people from eight countries, six of them Muslim-majority

Meanwhile, U.S

authorities have stepped up measures to deport unauthorized immigrants

The majority of asylum seekers have crossed the border in Quebec; Manitoba is another major crossing point.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3eBut Canada doesn\u2019t actually grant entry to asylum-seekers coming from the U.S., because it is considered a safe country \u2013 and if refugee applicants are rejected in one country, they can\u2019t take a second shot at asylum in the other

(That\u2019s the essence of the Safe Third Country agreement between the two countries.) Still, nothing stops refugees from crossing unofficially, and giving themselves up to be arrested

Once they\u2019re on Canadian soil, they are entitled to a hearing

That\u2019s what many asylum seekers have been banking on."}, "ASKYH4I5GFGVTINVBHUT7HRPT4":{"refVal":"FoodWaste","title":"Why is food waste a problem for the environment?","time":"30","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","text":"No one likes to waste food, but few of us think of the food we throw in the trash as a problem for the environment

After all, it\u2019s organic matter and it\u2019s biodegradable

But as food decomposes, it releases methane \u2013 a greenhouse gas that is 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide in contributing to climate change

Adding to this environmental impact is the fact that the land, water and fertilizer that contributed to producing that food \u2013 as well as resources used in packaging and shipping it to the consumer \u2013 have been wasted

This is not a small problem: Globally, about one-third of all food produced goes to waste.", "more":[{"text":"All of this releases about 3.3-billion tonnes of methane annually, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

In Canada, $31-billion worth of food (mostly fruits, vegetables and meat) is tossed out each year."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eHow is this happening?\x3c/strong\x3e Household waste accounts for about half of the food in landfills, by some measures

Other contributors include inefficient planting at farms, improper packaging or storage at food plants, restaurants that serve overly large portions, and retailers tossing what they can\u2019t sell

Some people in the food industry are attempting to address the problem

A few major retailers have said they are working toward \u201czero food waste.\u201d That means 90 per cent of food usually thrown out that is redirected through recycling and composting, donations, or repackaging

It\u2019s a work in progress."}]}, "KVUILMD4IBAZZOLKHI6ADI6GOY":{"refVal":"Syria","title":"Need some background on the conflict in Syria? ","time":"60","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"Remember the Arab Spring? The pro-democracy demonstrations that swept across the Middle East and North Africa starting in 2010, came to Syria in 2011

The roots of the current conflict lie there

President Bashar al-Assad is technically an elected leader, but he first came to power in a 2000 referendum where he ran unopposed, taking over from his father who had ruled the country for 30 years after staging a bloodless coup

His 2007 reelection also had no opposition candidate

Inspired by the Arab Spring, some Syrians \u2013 dissatisfied with high unemployment, lack of political freedoms and corruption \u2013 held protests

The government shut these down using deadly force; in response, dissidents armed themselves, violence escalated and the country descended into a civil war

But it\u2019s become a lot more complicated than just the government vs

the rebels

Numerous foreign powers including the U.S., Russia, Iran and others have their own priorities in the country, and are contributing to the fighting

Human rights groups have condemned the use of chemical attacks, which have killed hundreds of people since the conflict began

The UN has blamed some of those attacks on the Syrian government and one on the Islamic State group

", "more":[{"text":"Foreign powers have contributed to the Syrian conflict with air strikes, fighters on the ground, money, weapons, or some combination of these."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho are those foreign powers?\x3c/strong\x3e The U.S

is helping anti-Assad forces but is also in Syria to fight the terrorist group the Islamic State, and has carried out air strikes to retaliate for the government\u2019s use of chemical weapons against citizens

European countries such as France and Britain have had similar motives for their military operations in Syria, and are also dealing with an influx of refugees created by the conflict

Russia is allied with the Assad government, and has taken his side in the civil war

Russia and Assad have also been fighting the Islamic State, separate from the U.S.-led effort

Iran is also on Assad\u2019s side, and sees Syria as a strategic point to push back against Israel\u2019s influence in the region

Israel is worried about Iran\u2019s growing presence in this border country and has pushed back

Gulf states such as Saudi Arabia and Qatar also oppose Assad

Turkey is anti-Assad but is also fighting Kurdish forces there: Turkish Kurds want their own independent country and Turkey has fought against their growing influence in border states including Iraq and now Syria."}]}, "SLMMPHQRABGONA4IN3EFI2QSAI":{"refVal":"CryptocurrencyMiner","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","title":"What are cryptocurrency miners?","time":"45","text":"Cryptocurrency, broadly speaking, is electronic cash; unlike a typical currency such as the Canadian dollar, it\u2019s not controlled by any single authority like a central bank, government or financial institution

Bitcoin was the first type of cryptocurrency \u2013 and is still the best-known one

It emerged in early 2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e \x3cstrong\x3eHow does it work?\x3c/strong\x3e Cryptocurrencies like bitcoin have all their transactions recorded in a public ledger, with buyers\u2019 and sellers\u2019 identities hidden using cryptography (that\u2019s where the \u201ccrypto\u201d in the name comes from.) The computers that contribute to that network are called \u201ccryptocurrency miners.\u201d The idea is that the currency is secure because the ledger is not stored on a single machine that could be vulnerable to hacking or manipulation; instead, a network of computers (the miners) work together to create a shared record of all the transaction data (sort of like a bank ledger), called the \u201cblockchain.\u201d", "more":[{"text":"Cryptocurrency miners secure that information by solving complex, automatically-generated math puzzles; each time a miner does that, others in the network verify the\u202fwork and then that block of data is added to the \u201cblockchain\u201d \u2013 the system of shared information that makes the currency work

Cryptocurrency exchanges sell the currency in online marketplaces such as Bitstamp, Coinbase, Cryptsy, and many others, and some are sold at specialty bank machines

The supply of bitcoins is finite: their programming caps the total number at about 21-million coins

That makes cryptocurrency different from typical currency: a central bank can choose to print more money

"}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhy you\u2019re hearing so much about this:\x3c/strong\x3e At first, the value of cryptocurrencies was zero (that\u2019s still the case for some types.) But some, like bitcoin, have seen their value skyrocket \u2013 however,\u202f some warn this is a bubble, and those values could evaporate just as easily

Concerns have also been raised about cryptocurrency being used by people who want to hide financial dealings, such as terrorists, drug traffickers, money launderers and ransomware creators (people who hack others\u2019 computers and demand ransom for the return of their information and other valuable files.) Cryptocurrencies\u2019 future value will depend partly on the extent to which they can be used like money: most major retailers do not yet accept payment via cryptocurrency, though some online stores are experimenting with it

"}]}, "7AMONWEK3BCYLK46KWXKPFU6A4":{"refVal":"WineDry","title":"What does it mean to say a wine is \u201cdry\u201d?","time":"35","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","text":"Dry is the opposite of sweet

A wine\u2019s\u202fsweetness or\u202fdryness is largely dependent on residual sugar \u2013 or RS in the wine geek\u2019s argot \u2013 which is the natural grape sugar left after fermentation

After grapes are crushed, yeast feeds off grape sugar to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide

Yeast rarely finish the job completely: there\u2019s always a little sugar left, even in \u201cdry\u201d wines

Less than two grams of sugar per litre of fluid is considered very dry

There are other factors: a lot of acidity in wine, for example, can make it taste pretty dry even if it contains much more sugar than two grams per litre, and a fruity wine may taste subtly sweet even if it is dry.", "more":[{"text":"Some French wines may include \u201csec\u201d on the label to connote that it is dry, though it\u2019s not often they specify it; \u201cmoelleux\u201d and \u201cdoux\u201d denote sweet

In German, \u201ctrocken\u201d means dry

You can also check alcohol content, though it\u2019s not a perfect measure: lower alcohol tends to mean the yeast did not finish the job of converting sugar to alcohol, and 11 per cent alcohol or lower means that it\u2019s probably at least a little sweet."}]}, "K7MULKWAMJC55NADHCTQQHMDJY":{"refVal":"FoodSecurity","title":"What is food security?","time":"25","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"People\u202fwho\u202fhave\u202f\u201cfood security\u201d\u202fhave\u202faccess to enough affordable, nutritious food to remain active and healthy

This is largely determined by income and\u202f geography

Quantity is important -- whether the food is acquired through local agriculture, through trade with food-producing areas, or through aid, people must have enough of it\u202fto be considered food secure

Access alone is not enough: the food also has to be nutritious\u202fand safe to eat, so people must have access to proper storage, sanitation systems, hygiene practices and clean water."}, "3I3J43AWGRAMJBQG2ZOWOPZTHM":{"refVal":"MMIW","title":"Background on the missing and murdered indigenous women in Canada","time":"60","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":'Indigenous women are more than three times as likely as non-aboriginals to be victims of violent crime, according to Statistics Canada, and they are much more likely to go missing or die violently

Aboriginal women are overrepresented among the victims of serial killers, and appear frequently in unsolved cases of disappearances and homicides \u2014 such as those in the Edmonton area or along B.C.\u2019s "highway of tears." Poverty and marginalization, addiction and other issues play a role in these women\u2019s vulnerability; so do the intergenerational trauma and family breakdowns associated with Canada\u2019s colonial legacy and residential schools

The role of racism in unsolved cases is hotly debated

Some allege that homicides and disappearances involving aboriginal victims are investigated with less rigour than others

Police agencies have denied this

The ongoing independent national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls stated, in its interim report, that \u201csimply being Indigenous and female is a risk.\u201d The inquiry itself has been plagued by delays, some directors have left, and some families and survivors have expressed frustration with the process

', "more":[{"text":"Aboriginal women are overrepresented among victims of serial killers

Indigenous women make up just 4 per cent of Canada\u2019s female population; but 21 per cent of homicides of females where a conviction was obtained against a serial killer involved an aboriginal victim, according to a 2015 Globe analysis of more than 30 years of homicide data

That\u2019s just the convictions: because many serial homicides are likely never identified as such, the true number of female victims of serial killers is likely higher than the official record shows

Consider the case of B.C

serial killer Robert Pickton, who was convicted of killing six women; he claimed to have murdered dozens, and other cases where DNA and women\u2019s belongings were found on his farm were not brought to trial."}]}, "ONYZTJYY7JAGZGBKDVUSIL5UHM":{"refVal":"5G","title":"What is 5G?","time":"60","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"Telecom firms all over the world are spending billions to upgrade their networks with new 5G technology

5G is short for the \u201cfifth generation\u201d of wireless networks, the latest form of connectivity that is needed to cope with the explosion in the number of mobile devices

5G is a way to ensure those devices are reliably kept online

Right now, Canadian wireless companies use 4G networks (also known as LTE or \u201clong-term evolution\u201d) which do support fast downloads and easy streaming of content

But billions of new connected devices are due to come online in the next decade, transmitting significantly more data

So speeds and bandwidth capacity both need to be much higher, and \u201clatency\u201d (the time it takes to send a signal from one point to the next) must be much lower than it is today

5G will do this by using new spectrum frequencies \u2013 i.e

the radio waves that carry cellular signals through the air

To do that, companies need to build new infrastructure to help their networks access those frequencies more reliably

They are investing heavily to make that happen

In Canada, true 5G technology likely won\u2019t be deployed until about 2020.", "more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhy does this matter?\x3c/strong\x3e Lower latency and higher bandwidth will enable new technologies to work \u2013 such as medical devices that share x-ray images, automation systems in factories and future innovations such as self-driving cars

Meanwhile, other parts of 5G networks can be set aside specifically for devices that don\u2019t need to use much data, such as wirelessly-connected \u201csmart city\u201d sensors that help optimize the performance of traffic lights and utilities, and other public services."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eSo how does 5G actually work?\x3c/strong\x3e Right now, the wireless signal to your mobile phone travels across \u201clow-band\u201d radio waves, or spectrum, meaning the wavelengths are longer and can travel farther and penetrate buildings

So they offer reliable coverage, but they aren\u2019t as good at carrying data as higher-frequency waves

5G will add to the \u201clow-band\u201d network by making use of that very \u201chigh-band\u201d spectrum, which can carry huge amounts of data but can\u2019t travel as far

So, networks will have to use the equipment that has always carried low-band spectrum (a mix of traditional cell-phone towers and antennas on rooftops) but also install a web of small \u201ccells\u201d at lower heights, in order to allow that huge bandwidth to hopscotch over shorter distances

This takes a lot of new wireless infrastructure \u2013 and more smaller cells will need to be installed in places where there are more demands on the network

In Canada, carriers are running tests now and investing in new radio equipment and cell sites to make this happen

The idea is that with a web of wireless coverage, people can move around a city without any breaks in service

International bodies are also finalizing performance and technical standards, and governments around the world are consulting on the use of these new spectrum frequencies."}]}, "HFSEEYZWJ5BPHHPSR7YU2NV36E":{"refVal":"SpecialCounsel","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(18)","title":"What is a special counsel? ","time":"45","text":"The U.S

Department of Justice has dozens of attorneys whose role is to represent the government in federal legal cases in courts across the country

A special counsel is just like a U.S

attorney with an important exception: they mostly don\u2019t have to tell the Justice Department what they are doing

(Though \u201csignificant actions\u201d must be reported to the attorney general.) A special counsel is considered to be more independent than a regular prosecutor, and is therefore generally brought in to run politically-sensitive investigations

Unlike a regular prosecutor, a special counsel can only be fired by the attorney general, who must prove there was \u201cgood cause.\u201d After an investigation, a special counsel must provide a confidential report to the attorney general, explaining why legal charges resulted (or didn\u2019t)

The attorney general in turn must tell Congress the investigation is done, and can decide to make that report public, but does not have to.", "more":[{"text":"A special counsel has many of the same authorities as a U.S

attorney, such as launching investigations, bringing criminal charges, and handing out subpoenas (an order that requires someone to appear in court or another legal proceeding, or to produce documents and other records.) Robert Mueller is the special counsel investigating alleged interference by Russia in the 2016 U.S

presidential election, and whether anyone on the Trump campaign was involved

Another example of a special counsel was Patrick Fitzgerald, who investigated the public exposure of Valerie Plame\u2019s identity as a CIA agent

Do not confuse the term special counsel with \u201cindependent counsel\u201d or \u201cspecial prosecutor.\u201d Those are old roles that came about following the Watergate scandal in the \u201870s but they are now defunct; a special counsel is a similar concept but is the only term currently in use."}]}, "C4W4KFQJJBHVLM5ZT452KJDAFM":{"refVal":"vaping2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","title":"What is vaping and how does it work? ","time":"40","text":"Vaping is an alternative to smoking that is growing in popularity

E-cigarettes are hand-held devices that make vapour for the user to inhale, or \u201cvape.\u201d A battery-powered heating element inside the device is activated when the user sucks on the mouthpiece, causing liquid within the chamber to boil

The steam is then inhaled

The liquid usually contains water, flavourings, propylene glycol (a common moistening ingredient in many food products and cosmetics) and varying amounts of nicotine \u2013 though some are nicotine-free

Sometimes a cannabis compound called cannabidoil (CBD) or tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, which is responsible for the high from cannabis) can also be added to the liquid and vaped.\x3cbr/\x3e\x3cbr/\x3eVaping is considered less harmful than smoking because smoke is the source of many of the carcinogens associated with the habit

However, there is some debate about how much safer it is."}, "IIIE2GIV2NBLZIBB6DYLCJHWTE":{"refVal":"cryptocurrency","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","title":"What is cryptocurrency/bitcoin and how does it work? ","time":"45","text":"Bandages are the product and Band-Aid is one type; so it is with cryptocurrency and bitcoin

Cryptocurrency, broadly, is electronic cash; unlike a typical currency such as the Canadian dollar, it\u2019s not controlled by any single authority like a central bank, government or financial institution

Bitcoin was the first type of cryptocurrency \u2013 and is still the best-known one

It emerged in early 2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis.\x3cbr/\x3e\x3cbr/\x3e\x3cstrong\x3eHow does it work?\x3c/strong\x3e Cryptocurrencies like bitcoin have all their transactions recorded in a public ledger, with buyers\u2019 and sellers\u2019 identities hidden using cryptography (that\u2019s where the \u201ccrypto\u201d in the name comes from.) The idea is that the currency is secure because the ledger is not stored on a single machine that could be vulnerable to hacking or manipulation; instead, a network of computers work together to create a shared record of all the transaction data (sort of like a bank ledger), called the \u201cblockchain.\u201d", "more":[{"text":"The computers that contribute to that network are called \u201ccryptocurrency miners.\u201d They secure that information by solving complex, automatically-generated math puzzles; each time a miner does that, others in the network verify the work and then that block of data is added to the \u201cblockchain\u201d \u2013 the system of shared information that makes the currency work

Cryptocurrency exchanges sell the currency in online marketplaces such as Bitstamp, Coinbase, Cryptsy, and many others, and some are sold at specialty bank machines

The supply of bitcoins is finite: their programming caps the total number at about 21-million coins

That makes cryptocurrency different from typical currency: a central bank can choose to print more money."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhy you\u2019re hearing so much about this:\x3c/strong\x3e At first, the value of cryptocurrencies was zero (that\u2019s still the case for some types.) But some, like bitcoin, have seen their value skyrocket \u2013 however, some warn this is a bubble, and those values could evaporate just as easily

Concerns have also been raised about cryptocurrency being used by people who want to hide financial dealings, such as terrorists, drug traffickers, money launderers and ransomware creators (people who hack others\u2019 computers and demand ransom for the return of their information and other valuable files.) Cryptocurrencies\u2019 future value will depend partly on the extent to which they can be used like money: most major retailers do not yet accept payment via cryptocurrency, though some online stores are experimenting with it."}]}, "5NFI3NJG3RH6FMRMUK6IU6DEHI":{"refVal":"blockchain","title":"What is blockchain?","time":"35","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(50)","text":"Blockchain is the technology that powers cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin

Say you buy something with your credit card; your bank records that transaction on its ledger and you depend on the bank\u2019s security systems to keep your transaction data safe

With blockchain, there is no single ledger held in a central place

Instead, a network of computers work together to create and constantly update a shared record, and to keep it more secure than it could be if held in one spot

Those computers secure that information by solving complex, automatically-generated math puzzles; each one\u2019s work is verified by others in the network

Once verified, each block of data is added to that \u201cblockchain.\u201d", "more":[{"text":"This technology is not just relevant to making cryptocurrencies work: because of its promised ability to verify transactions without a middleman and the potential to protect sensitive information from hacking, other industries are beginning to consider using blockchain technology

For example, advertising leaders have discussed using blockchain to prevent advertising fraud and make digital ad buying more reliable

Financial institutions, also highly concerned about securing data, see potential in it as well."}]}, "676ZV7PTCFB3NA7OHEXK43CUQY":{"refVal":"MarketIndex","title":"What are market indexes like \u201cthe Dow\u201d and \u201cthe S\x26P 500\u201d and why do they matter? ","time":"90","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(25)","text":"A market index is used to show broad trends in stock markets by taking a large sampling of stocks and tracking fluctuations in how they all trade

(Some indexes also track other investment vehicles such as bonds, but when you hear about what the market is doing using an index, it\u2019s usually a stock market index we\u2019re talking about.) Common indexes you\u2019re likely to hear about include the Nikkei (Tokyo), Hang Seng (Hong Kong), the Dow (New York), the S\x26P 500 (New York), the FTSE (London) and the S\x26P/TSX Composite Index (Toronto)

You see index trends reported in the news for a few reasons: First, stocks in various companies usually make up at least part of many people\u2019s investment portfolios \u2013 even if they\u2019re not into trading themselves

(Do you invest in a mutual fund or ETF? You\u2019ve got stocks.) So a big move in the market often has an impact on people\u2019s savings

Second, the markets are part of what\u2019s going on in the economy as a whole, and big swings can indicate larger economic trends

But it\u2019s important to take that with a grain of salt: the stock market is primarily a reflection of the health of the corporate sector, while the real economy takes into account how consumers are doing as well \u2013 not just how corporate stocks perform

So while the two things are related, they need not always be in sync: Looked at in aggregate, the stock market can reflect investors\u2019 fear or confidence about how the economy is doing (think of the drop in stock markets that accompanied the 2007-2008 global financial crisis), but such trends are not always a proxy for the health of the economy

Does it seem like the markets are always setting new records? Remember, inflation plays a role

When indexes are not adjusted for inflation, they look like they are on a consistent and inexorable path upward

But it may not necessarily be so.", "more":[{"text":"Many of the indexes have longer names: For example, when you hear about the Dow, people are talking about the Dow Jones Industrial Average (this measures 30 stocks that trade on the New York Stock Exchange, not to be confused with the Dow Jones Transportation Average, which tracks stocks of 20 transportation companies on the same exchange.) The Dow was created more than a century ago by the co-founder of Dow Jones and the first editor of the Wall Street Journal, Charles Dow

Because it tracks so few companies and is price-weighted (giving the highest-priced stocks more influence over the index\u2019s value) the Dow is sometimes criticized for not accurately representing market activity

(It is still closely watched, however.) More modern indexes like the TSX Composite Index (which measures 300 stocks on the Toronto Stock Exchange) are usually \u201cmarket-weighted\u201d instead of price-weighted, meaning that they track stocks with the biggest market capitalization (that\u2019s the value of all of a company\u2019s shares, rather than the price of an individual share) on a given exchange

Many people see that as a broader picture of the market, but even a market-weighted index does not track the performance of thousands of smaller companies\u2019 stocks \u2013 so it\u2019s not a complete picture, even if it\u2019s a more reliable one."}]}, "FEDLV2EFOVC43LI4FE4YDTHM3A":{"refVal":"WinePoints","title":"What do point scores for wine mean?","time":"30","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","text":"The American wine critic Robert Parker popularized the 100-point scale for wine

(Think of it like a university grade.) Critics score wines in relation to others of the same style or grape variety; a 90-point barbera may be just as \u201cgood\u201d as a 90-point cabernet sauvignon

But the wines will not taste the same.","more":[{"text":"You\u2019re likely to see a lot of high scores in reviews

That\u2019s because critics prefer to focus on recommending wines of a decent quality rather than pillorying plonk

Obviously, scores are subjective, and can differ depending on the writer \u2013 for reliable guidance, seek out a consensus of reviews or the score of a critic you feel has guided you well before."}]}, "7DD5EBS63NCONN73MNLA7XIFV4":{"refVal":"TimHortons","title":"Need a quick catch-up on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?","time":"55","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","text":"Storied Canadian coffee chain Tim Hortons is a franchise, meaning that each of its stores is owned not by the company but by a franchisee

Franchisees pay annual license fees to use the company\u2019s brand; they buy supplies such as food and equipment from the company; and they agree to follow standards the company sets for its stores

Tim Hortons has faced pushback from some franchisees, who say heavy cost-cutting at the top is hurting their businesses

Brazilian firm 3G Capital acquired Tim Hortons at the end of 2014, and began cracking down on costs

In March 2017, a group of franchisees now claiming to represent more than half of Tim Hortons\u2019 Canadian owners formed the Great White North Franchisee Association

The GWNFA claims cost-cutting has affected the quality of the supplies franchisees buy from the company, such as cups and trays \u2013 and it claims that cost-cutting benefits only the parent company, because franchisees end up paying more for cheaper goods

The association also claims that the fees they pay to contribute to marketing programs have been improperly diverted for other corporate uses.", "more":[{"text":"In Canada, the franchisees\u2019 association has launched two separate legal cases seeking class action status (meaning the right to take legal action on behalf of a group of people.) One lawsuit deals with alleged misuse of the advertising fund; the other alleges that the company has gotten in the way of franchisees\u2019 right to unionize

A group of U.S

franchisees has also launched a case paving the way for a class action lawsuit over the alleged misuse of the advertising funds."}]}, "6ULOX6SIZ5MUFER6LRSQY3ELWM":{"refVal":"vaping","title":"What is vaping and how do e-cigarettes work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)","time":"60","text":"Vaping is an alternative to smoking that is growing in popularity

E-cigarettes are hand-held devices that make vapour for the user to inhale, or \u201cvape.\u201d A battery-powered heating element inside the device is activated when the user sucks on the mouthpiece, causing liquid within the chamber to boil

The steam is then inhaled

The liquid usually contains water, flavourings, propylene glycol (a common moistening ingredient in many food products and cosmetics) and varying amounts of nicotine \u2013 though some are nicotine-free

Some devices produce vapour by heating a small amount of tobacco, but not burning it like a cigarette does

Although technically they are \u201cheated tobacco products,\u201d or HTPs, some people refer to them as e-cigarettes as well

There are also hybrid devices that contain both liquid and a small amount of tobacco.", "more":[{"text":"E-cigarettes are considered less harmful than cigarettes because they do not produce smoke, which is the source of many of the carcinogens associated with smoking

However, there is some debate about how much safer they are \u2013 especially those that contain nicotine \u2013 and whether they are an aid to quit smoking, or, conversely, lead users to take up the habit."},{"text":"In Canada, vapour products were a CAD$282.6-million industry in 2016, nearly 10 times the size of the market just five years earlier, according to research firm Euromonitor International

E-cigarettes appeared in the Canadian market around 2007, and Health Canada effectively banned them for sale here in 2009

However, with little enforcement, vaping stores and e-commerce sites have popped up across the country

An amendment to Canada\u2019s Tobacco Act is expected to take effect soon, regulating the sale, advertising and labeling of vaping products \u2013 whether or not they contain nicotine

This will place restrictions on claims about the products\u2019 effectiveness for quitting smoking, and will ban the promotion of candy-like flavours that could attract underage users, among other rules

Once the laws are clarified, big tobacco companies are expected to aggressively market their e-cigarette products here, and the market could expand significantly."}]}, "URNUZGBR7FCGPCXZO3LGZCM3M4":{"refVal":"GDPR","title":"Need a quick catch-up on Europe\u2019s new privacy laws?","time":"35","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(17)","text":"The European Union has ignited a global discussion about the rights of individuals to control their personal information, with the passage of a new law called the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

It will impose major changes in privacy controls for any businesses that handle the data of people who live in any of the EU\u2019s 28 member countries

(That includes companies not based in the EU.) The changes include stricter rules for gaining consent to use people\u2019s information (fine print legalese won\u2019t cut it; agreements must be easily understood) \u2013 and the right for people to revoke that consent, among many other new rules

The law has caused companies to revise their privacy policies, because it imposes very heavy fines for those that don\u2019t comply.", "more":[{"text":"Under GDPR, people have the right to see what information a company has collected on them

If a data breach such as hacking occurs, companies must notify, within three days, anyone whose data is affected

People also have the \u201cright to be forgotten\u201d: they can ask for their data to be erased and no longer processed or distributed

There are also special rules for the protection of children\u2019s personal information

Companies found in violation could be fined up to \u20ac20-million (almost $30-million Canadian) or 4 per cent of their total global revenue, whichever is greater

The law takes effect on May 25, 2018."}]}, "3SZQ6BNNG5DSZJZXPYDDBQUSUM":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence? Is it different from machine learning? ","time":"55","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","text":"The basic difference between these two terms is the distinction between the concept of intelligence, and the process of learning

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eArtificial intelligence (AI)\x3c/strong\x3e is a term dating back to the 50s, when it was defined as \u201cthe science and engineering of making intelligent machines.\u201d When we talk about AI, we\u2019re usually talking broadly about the concept of machines that can develop abilities usually associated with human intelligence \u2013 like learning a language, spontaneously navigating a roadway when driving a car or spotting the difference between an image of a cat or a dog.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eMachine learning\x3c/strong\x3e refers to various methods for developing AI

Many computers function by being explicitly programmed to follow a specific series of instructions; machine learning, in contrast, attempts to train a computer to complete tasks or solve problems on its own

People have been working on this for decades

Why are you hearing so much about it now? Because only in recent years have our computers been fast enough, and able to process large enough sets of information, to make more complex developments in machine learning possible.", "refVal":"ai_old"},"PY26MPAKGRE6RKIWEHH52ZU5CE":{"title":"What is machine learning? Is it different from AI?","time":"55","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(13)","text":"The basic difference between these two terms is the distinction between the concept of intelligence, and the process of learning

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eArtificial intelligence (AI)\x3c/strong\x3e is a term dating back to the 50s, when it was defined as \u201cthe science and engineering of making intelligent machines.\u201d When we talk about AI, we\u2019re usually talking broadly about the concept of machines that can develop abilities usually associated with human intelligence \u2013 like learning a language, spontaneously navigating a roadway when driving a car or spotting the difference between an image of a cat or a dog.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eMachine learning\x3c/strong\x3e refers to various methods for developing AI

Many computers function by being explicitly programmed to follow a specific series of instructions; machine learning, in contrast, attempts to train a computer to complete tasks or solve problems on its own

People have been working on this for decades

Why are you hearing so much about it now? Because only in recent years have our computers been fast enough, and able to process large enough sets of information, to make more complex developments in machine learning possible.", "refVal":"ai_old2"},"B2RWUAJ2UNDWZLJL7MD2FW5LSY":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and what is bitcoin and how does it work? ","time":"45","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","text":"Bandages are the product and Band-Aid is one type; so it is with cryptocurrency and bitcoin

Cryptocurrency, broadly, is electronic cash; unlike a typical currency such as the Canadian dollar, it\u2019s not controlled by any single authority like a central bank, government or financial institution

Bitcoin was the first type of cryptocurrency \u2013 and is still the best-known one

It emerged in early 2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eHow does it work?\x3c/strong\x3e Cryptocurrencies like bitcoin have all their transactions recorded in a public ledger, with buyers\u2019 and sellers\u2019 identities hidden using cryptography (that\u2019s where the \u201ccrypto\u201d in the name comes from.) The idea is that the currency is secure because the ledger is not stored on a single machine that could be vulnerable to hacking or manipulation; instead, a network of computers work together to create a shared record of all the transaction data (sort of like a bank ledger), called the \u201cblockchain.\u201d", "more":[{"text":"The computers that contribute to that network are called \u201ccryptocurrency miners.\u201d They secure that information by solving complex, automatically-generated math puzzles; each time a miner does that, others in the network verify the work and then that block of data is added to the \u201cblockchain\u201d \u2013 the system of shared information that makes the currency work

Cryptocurrency exchanges sell the currency in online marketplaces such as Bitstamp, Coinbase, Cryptsy, and many others, and some are sold at specialty bank machines

The supply of bitcoins is finite: their programming caps the total number at about 21-million coins

That makes cryptocurrency different from typical currency: a central bank can choose to print more money."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhy you\u2019re hearing so much about this:\x3c/strong\x3e At first, the value of cryptocurrencies was zero (that\u2019s still the case for some types.) But some, like bitcoin, have seen their value skyrocket \u2013 however, some warn this is a bubble, and those values could evaporate just as easily

Concerns have also been raised about cryptocurrency being used by people who want to hide financial dealings, such as terrorists, drug traffickers, money launderers and ransomware creators (people who hack others\u2019 computers and demand ransom for the return of their information and other valuable files.) Cryptocurrencies\u2019 future value will depend partly on the extent to which they can be used like money: most major retailers do not yet accept payment via cryptocurrency, though some online stores are experimenting with it."}], "refVal":"crypto_old"},"LDD5CCN3WBFABOXJMYF5NCJCBE":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence?","time":"55","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(12)","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eArtificial intelligence (AI)\x3c/strong\x3e is a term dating back to the 50s, when it was defined as \u201cthe science and engineering of making intelligent machines.\u201d When we talk about AI, we\u2019re usually talking broadly about the concept of machines that can develop abilities usually associated with human intelligence \u2013 like learning a language, spontaneously navigating a roadway when driving a car or spotting the difference between an image of a cat or a dog.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eMachine learning\x3c/strong\x3e refers to various methods for developing AI

Many computers function by being explicitly programmed to follow a specific series of instructions; machine learning, in contrast, attempts to train a computer to complete tasks or solve problems on its own

People have been working on this for decades

Why are you hearing so much about it now? Because only in recent years have our computers been fast enough, and able to process large enough sets of information, to make more complex developments in machine learning possible.", "refVal":"ai_old3"},"SERKIF25SBHCDAH5ULHVDUM3Q4":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on the Russia probe?","time":"65","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"This investigation is looking into alleged interference by Russia in the 2016 U.S

presidential election, and whether anyone on Donald Trump\u2019s campaign was involved, during or after the race

The U.S Justice Department and the FBI launched the investigation, which is led by special counsel Robert Mueller

It\u2019s the largest probe of ties between Russia and the Trump campaign (others, including the Senate intelligence committee, Senate judiciary committee, House intelligence committee and House oversight committee are also investigating)

So far, it has resulted in Mueller bringing charges against Russian hackers for interfering in the election, and against some Trump campaign associates for lying to the FBI and for laundering money

The investigation is primarily focused on two crimes: \x3cstrong\x3e1) Collusion.\x3c/strong\x3e Did the Russian government hack into the servers of the Democratic National Committee (the arm of the Democratic Party that supports candidates seeking election) \u2013 leaking confidential e-mails to whistleblower website Wikileaks \u2013 in order to help the Trump campaign? And did anyone on the Trump campaign work with Russians who interfered in the election? \x3cstrong\x3e 2) Obstruction of justice.\x3c/strong\x3e Did Mr

Trump attempt to interfere with the investigation into that first question? All of the investigations, including Mueller\u2019s, will end with reports on what they found (though Mueller\u2019s report may not necessarily be made public.) It is not clear how long this will take

", "more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhat are the collusion allegations?\x3c/strong\x3e The FBI, other intelligence agencies and the Justice Department allege that hackers who broke into the Democratic National Committee\u2019s servers in July of 2016 were working on behalf of the Russian government \u2013 and that they leaked embarrassing e-mails to Wikileaks in order to sway the election in favour of Donald Trump

(Among other things, the e-mails showed that the DNC \u2013 which is supposed to be neutral \u2013 favoured Hillary Clinton for the party\u2019s presidential candidate over her competitor for the nomination, Bernie Sanders.) There are indications, which the investigators are looking into, that people in Mr

Trump\u2019s circle knew about the hack

At the time, Mr

Trump publicly stated that Russia should hack into Ms

Clinton\u2019s e-mails and release them."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhat are the obstruction allegations?\x3c/strong\x3e The investigation into the DNC e-mail hack started immediately after it happened, in July of 2016, when the election campaign was still ongoing

At first, FBI James Comey was leading the investigation, but, a few months after taking office, Mr

Trump fired him, in May, 2017

The White House said Mr

Comey\u2019s dismissal had to do with his performance at the FBI; Mr

Comey has said it was a result of the Russia investigation

Mr

Trump later said in a TV interview that when he decided to fire Mr

Comey, \u201cI said to myself, I said, \u2018You know, this Russia thing with Trump and Russia is a made-up story.\u2019\u201d Mr

Comey told a Senate committee hearing that Mr

Trump attempted to meddle in the investigation more than once, including asking Mr

Comey to \u201clift the cloud\u201d that the probe had caused over his administration

Mr

Comey\u2019s firing was widely decried, and led to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein (acting in the place of attorney general Jeff Sessions, who has recused himself from the investigation) to appoint special counsel Robert Mueller to take over the probe."}], "refVal":"russia_probe"},"QU7CTP4O5RE3LPMNDLSB4FGNTM":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on the U.S

travel ban?","time":"55","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","text":"The ban has taken a few forms

The most recent one bans U.S

entry visas for people from six Muslim-majority countries (Chad, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Syria and Yemen) and two that are not majority Muslim (North Korea, which doesn\u2019t seek many U.S

entry visas anyway, and Venezuela, where it applies only to some government officials and their families).\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nDebate has raged over whether this is a policy meant to discriminate against Muslims

Through all its iterations, the ban has never applied to more than 15 per cent of the global population of 1.6-billion Muslims

However, U.S

President Donald Trump himself has said he wanted to ban Muslims specifically: during his presidential campaign, reacting to a terrorist attack in San Bernardino, Calif., he advocated for \u201ca total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our country\u2019s representatives can figure out what the hell is going on.\u201d The president has said the ban is about terrorism, not religion

In late April, the U.S

Supreme Court heard arguments that focused partly on whether the first two bans were driven by \u201creligious animus.\u201d The court\u2019s decision is pending.", "more":[{"text":"It can be hard to keep track of the travel ban, because its form has changed a few times

Here\u2019s the history: The first ban was in January, 2017, when an executive order from the President declared a 90-day ban on issuing entry visas to people from seven countries with majority Muslim populations: Iran, Iraq, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen

A number of federal courts blocked that one

Then, another 90-day ban was introduced in July, 2017: that one took Iraq off the list, and allowed entry from the other countries if the visitor could prove a family relationship in the U.S

(Relationships that make the cut: parent, spouse or fianc\u00e9(e), son or daughter, sibling, or son- or daughter-in-law

Grandparents were also later given permission to visit.) Legitimate business relationships, such as with an employer, could also do the trick (these have to be \u201cformal\u201d and \u201cdocumented\u201d and not created \u201cfor the purpose of evading\u201d the ban.) Then, in September, the newest ban kept five of the original countries (Iran, Libya, Somalia, Syria and Yemen) and added three (North Korea, Chad and Venezuela)

And it scrapped the 90-day period, instead saying the ban would be up for review only if those governments improved measures like sharing information with the U.S

It also had no provisions for relationships with family or employers."}], "refVal":"travel_ban"},"EDRKBSZCGFFDPNBLUSFSLRXUUE":{"title":"What are market indexes like the Dow and why do they matter?","time":"90","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(26)","text":"A market index is used to show broad trends in stock markets by taking a large sampling of stocks and tracking fluctuations in how they all trade

(Some indexes also track other investment vehicles such as bonds, but when you hear about what the market is doing using an index, it\u2019s usually a stock market index we\u2019re talking about.) Common indexes you\u2019re likely to hear about include the Nikkei (Tokyo), Hang Seng (Hong Kong), the Dow (New York), the S\x26P 500 (New York), the FTSE (London) and the S\x26P/TSX Composite Index (Toronto)

You see index trends reported in the news for a few reasons: First, stocks in various companies usually make up at least part of many people\u2019s investment portfolios \u2013 even if they\u2019re not into trading themselves

(Do you invest in a mutual fund or ETF? You\u2019ve got stocks.) So a big move in the market often has an impact on people\u2019s savings

Second, the markets are part of what\u2019s going on in the economy as a whole, and big swings can indicate larger economic trends

But it\u2019s important to take that with a grain of salt: the stock market is primarily a reflection of the health of the corporate sector, while the real economy takes into account how consumers are doing as well \u2013 not just how corporate stocks perform

So while the two things are related, they need not always be in sync: Looked at in aggregate, the stock market can reflect investors\u2019 fear or confidence about how the economy is doing (think of the drop in stock markets that accompanied the 2007-2008 global financial crisis), but such trends are not always a proxy for the health of the economy

Does it seem like the markets are always setting new records? Remember, inflation plays a role

When indexes are not adjusted for inflation, they look like they are on a consistent and inexorable path upward

But it may not necessarily be so.", "more":[{"text":"Many of the indexes have longer names: For example, when you hear about the Dow, people are talking about the Dow Jones Industrial Average (this measures 30 stocks that trade on the New York Stock Exchange, not to be confused with the Dow Jones Transportation Average, which tracks stocks of 20 transportation companies on the same exchange.) The Dow was created more than a century ago by the co-founder of Dow Jones and the first editor of the Wall Street Journal, Charles Dow

Because it tracks so few companies and is price-weighted (giving the highest-priced stocks more influence over the index\u2019s value) the Dow is sometimes criticized for not accurately representing market activity

(It is still closely watched, however.) More modern indexes like the TSX Composite Index (which measures 300 stocks on the Toronto Stock Exchange) are usually \u201cmarket-weighted\u201d instead of price-weighted, meaning that they track stocks with the biggest market capitalization (that\u2019s the value of all of a company\u2019s shares, rather than the price of an individual share) on a given exchange

Many people see that as a broader picture of the market, but even a market-weighted index does not track the performance of thousands of smaller companies\u2019 stocks \u2013 so it\u2019s not a complete picture, even if it\u2019s a more reliable one."}], "refVal":"dow_index"},"F3HEUENLKZAABOROUOZLEDIF3I":{"title":"What is price fixing?","time":"30","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"Prices change all the time, based on the cost of making a product, what competitors are doing, and other factors

What\u2019s the difference between price fixing (which is illegal) and simply changing prices in a competitive way? It\u2019s an agreement between competitors: if two or more competing businesses agree together not to undercut each other on prices, then they can all charge higher prices and make more money

That\u2019s anticompetitive behavior

Competitors are allowed to talk to each other, but not to conspire to do things like raise prices artificially, or to restrict the supply of a product so that consumers have less choice and less buying power

", "more":[{"text":"Competition is good for consumers because they always have the option to take their business elsewhere: that helps to keep prices from rising more than the market will bear

Anti-competitive behavior like price fixing creates something that looks more like a monopoly: consumers can choose to take their business elsewhere but it\u2019s a false choice because competition that keeps prices reasonable has been eliminated

It can be hard to prove anti-competitive behavior like price fixing, because it usually involves secret agreements \u2013 most often these come to light because a whistleblower tips off authorities, (in Canada, that\u2019s the Competition Bureau,) triggering an investigation."}], "refVal":"price_fixing"},"763ML5B56BHJ7IAHII2CMSCXZU":{"refVal":"FARC","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the FARC and their peace deal with the Colombian government? ","title":"Need some background on the FARC and their peace deal with the Colombian government? ","time":"60","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","text":"For more than 50 years, FARC were the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, a guerrilla army

Now, the organization has rebranded itself as a Marxist political party, the Common Alternative Revolutionary Force (still FARC, in the Spanish acronym)

The FARC fought a 52-year war against the Colombian government

More than 220,000 people died in that conflict, the vast majority of them civilians, and millions of people were displaced

The FARC was infamous for its forced recruitment of child soldiers, kidnappings, use of landmines, and for funding its guerrilla force with narco-trafficking

The original cause of the conflict was wealth disparity: A small elite long controlled the Colombian state and much of its land, while the majority of citizens felt the government did not represent them

In the late \u201850s, after a decade-long civil war ended in Colombia, some peasant farmers began organizing into communities under a Communist movement

When government troops attacked them in 1964, they formed a guerrilla force that became the FARC

After many failed attempts to make peace over the decades, the government and the FARC signed an agreement in 2016

The deal was controversial and divided Colombians

", "more":[{"text":"Many FARC fighters grew up as poor subsistence farmers, and were from the marginalized Indigenous and Afro-Colombian communities

The FARC was forced to the negotiating table after a harsh military offensive greatly diminished its forces

The negotiations for the peace deal mostly happened in Cuba \u2013 which is why it is often referred to as the Havana Accord

While most Colombians wanted the war to end, they were sharply divided over the contents of the deal, particularly that FARC leaders would not be jailed

Many citizens also did not trust the FARC to honour its commitments, which included handing over its weapons, doing reparations work such as road construction, and sending commanders before a special court

If commanders testified truthfully, their punishment would be restricted movement and reparations work such as clearing land mines

The government committed to reforming rural land distribution and investing in social services and infrastructure in former FARC-controlled areas, the poorest in the country

The deal also guaranteed the FARC seats in Congress for two electoral terms

After an elaborate signing ceremony with Colombian president Juan Manuel Santos and supreme FARC commander Rodrigo (Timochenko) Londono in September 2016, the deal was rejected a few days later in a national referendum

New talks were hastily held, and a modified deal was passed into law by the Congress without a second referendum

While the peace accord was approved in a series of high court cases, there continues to be a push within Colombia to reopen it and make requirements on the FARC more severe

In its first electoral showing in March 2018, the FARC performed dismally, garnering less than 0.5 per cent of the vote in both the house and senate."}]}, "ZF727GGOYJFXHFLGUD4FLG267M":{"refVal":"Gaza_only","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the Gaza Strip, and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","title":"What is the Gaza Strip, and what is its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","time":"50","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe Gaza Strip\x3c/strong\x3e is a sliver of land between Israel, Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea that is home to almost two million people who live in extreme poverty

Unlike the West Bank, which is governed by an organization, Fatah, that has engaged in talks with Israel over the years, Gaza is controlled by Hamas, which does not recognize Israel\u2019s right to exist

Hamas\u2019 fight against Israel has included orchestrating suicide bombings there and firing rockets from Gaza into Israel

Although Israel withdrew its soldiers and settlers from Gaza in 2005, it maintains a blockade that restricts the flow of commercial goods into Gaza \u2013 with the avowed purpose of limiting Hamas\u2019s access to materials it could use to build weapons

However, the blockade has also affected Gaza residents\u2019 access to food, clean water, medicine, electricity and fuel

Trade and travel across the border with Egypt is also highly restricted

The conditions in Gaza have sparked protests and violence along the border with Israel, and have raised humanitarian concerns.", "more":[{"text":"The long-standing crisis dates back to the end of British administration over what was then called Palestine

In 1947, the United Nations proposed dividing Palestine into three territories: a Jewish state and an Arab state, plus special status that placed an area encompassing the holy cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem under international administration

Jews had already been moving into the area for decades in what they saw as a bid for a homeland (the ideology that drove this is known as Zionism), but which Palestinians saw as an effort to displace them

The West Bank and the Gaza Strip were both part of a larger area set aside for the Arab state under the UN plan

Palestinians fought back against that plan, as did surrounding Arab nations, leading to a 1948 war that began as soon as the State of Israel was declared."}, {"text":"By the end of that war, Israeli forces had claimed more land than was envisioned by the UN plan, and hundreds of thousands of Palestinians had been forced from their homes

Many fled to neighbouring Arab states

Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip, while Jordan held what is now known as the West Bank

Both of those areas were seized by Israel following the second Arab-Israeli War, in 1967

Together, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip are home to more than four million Palestinians in total."}]}, "WLPUYH2PGFD5NNBLGL5ZDAEX5Q":{"ref":"MMIW","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"4B3CGU34Q5BO5IT3YDLZ7QK4W4":{"ref":"5G","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"F6ZUCZNPKJBAZJYSJYANJKPMPM":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"Z323V62BHZHRJIXLDCTBGVVGAI":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"N4V2VN2ASJGNPEMGYZULUWE6R4":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"JN7YDP4B4JHLTKDOTNULLEKUQ4":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"}, "DMCTE7J7X5HKNEQVZFEM4OBBCY":{"ref":"G7","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)"},"IZMYUQ7R5ZHOPPFC7PTWZ3EY6E":{"ref":"SpecialCounsel","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"SMBNDKV32ZF3XEAQ3EJ2FD66Q4":{"ref":"SpecialCounsel","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"7DXBTBNQANDKZCZ2VQ5E2RM5AU":{"ref":"vaping2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"UYLCZ3RSINFGLIONNZCUX2Y34E":{"ref":"vaping2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)"},"EX37VNENUBEXTJPEWGJPYR4IFM":{"ref":"transmountain2", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"WRSXCISOSNGG7EGWJUKSNRRI2U":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"CWYXUBBDZ5DYBCQI2PIUKESVJE":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"2EWYXQIZKVBZDM2IIAV4X3RCII":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"CW42KCWTIFEQJAW4VF4JLMT6RU":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"Z2AM5HXNHVAWLMUTDSIWTDBZL4":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"}, "BNN3SVC3S5C67LX2NKKYSKZZUI":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)"},"LYB4L6DU3VB6BFXCJ3LRTSS52U":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"AEYH6LMS6FCKFL4MBSTHF3J7EM":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"2E54K3HCV5ECDM27TITIPFJTTE":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"EDYKVNKNCRHM3BVZKHHCQCTIXU":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"5H3GAZTWT5E5XHFMLLEJWNQZUI":{"ref":"transmountain2", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"7XYMTKCYUZEXXBCYWU3CF7NZQU":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"CLVRWMX4UVEYRP7KTHYQTYUIRA":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"7DMTBG2RJ5AH3CJVXSEF3SXKB4":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)"},"3C3L5GVWGREZ5E4R45IEIEC7A4":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"SJFHGNQ6WFC5XEECSL35MCNN74":{"ref":"transmountain2","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(22)"}, "7M6P5TVIZFH4FNFOJYTBNLS5JI":{"ref":"cryptocurrency","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"NOPCYXDYXRHADMN2QMNPEVZDMA":{"ref":"cryptocurrency","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"FVXHM7NJONE5DFBGBG7RVNW4QM":{"ref":"MarketIndex","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)"},"NOTIR3CYQ5BAFPJXJ4KDWB4DW4":{"ref":"supply","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(16)"},"ETPJP5FM5BHSFC6PBGDYAKPRNM":{"ref":"supply","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)"},"XNG5DZKHHRBHFB6BGS5QDWPMMQ":{"ref":"Russia", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)"},"4WW7GYDGCJFEDNFWNCMWSW7Y7Q":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"CSH6JCQX7ZEKBN24WXI6ARPOY4":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"CW3HLJ3KLFDUJFO3LIQ3EK4BME":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"3XFFSJIFFBEHDNW7DW56DVCRZE":{"ref":"Russia","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"PKGJG5NJ2ZGOHHBU7JHJMT2A5Q":{"ref":"asylum","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"}, "DQSESLUVVBH5TPDAGADRP6OCXA":{"ref":"asylum","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"ECH4CFPYWNGCXKARSNBISCVEDA":{"ref":"asylum","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"PDGHGJ47LFFDXMKYVVQWKTMDDY":{"ref":"asylum","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"7BT2YBNZF5HTPJUJ3DNR7LI4DY":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"6YSS2XWV3JEKPLU54GSM5ORJPE":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"},"MLBZS2QNT5HILN5QOQT6IEEETA":{"ref":"tariff","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)"}, 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tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"EF5HYFWV5VFXZMROA3P3MB2YMU":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Canada\u2019s \u201csupply management\u201d system?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"supply"},"LY453W5XABABFJGLDALMFIWLP4":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"transmountain2"},"NGAONPGFINH5XJG65FCGW7YX5M":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"tariff"},"HMLNH6IWLZHOTJ64ZJGSWDWTJY":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(18)","ref":"MMIW"},"TDS3HI4AKBF4VFBSMN3EB5TWVE":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"tariff"},"DFIVMKGNNVFUDJDWAKYIEBQN2M":{"title":"", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Canada's supply management 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"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on supply management?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","ref":"supply"},"6X5RXXJHWNGO5GAQKNTHTJBJ5U":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(17)","ref":"tariff"},"WG72M3AQ7NCDZAAWJI6LMEMKLI":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Russia investigation?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"Russia"},"QZ36W5HT5VHKRC43VGZ3JTZS6M":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"nafta"},"PL2KUIMDDRH7TP42LRT3XTFTMI":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)","ref":"tariff"},"OL32CXTOYVB43JMNGXOGGSPMIU":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"nafta"},"OZXHZJRRI5C3TL7GM7LED4AYTQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on AI and machine learning?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)", "ref":"ai"},"LBTZUYLRU5EZ7OHX2RMMAVZKBQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(7)","ref":"nafta"},"KY6APNXCEVHHXFC5VEW6TYS7J4":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"tariff"},"ACPQLUFURVEGZMVBQLVB4ROBFM":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"WXMS67AVWZCXJJME4ZXAHEGD6Y":{"title":"","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(14)","ref":"tariff"},"MOEYTRJTXJDZ5H4FK5HKAYEJ6Q":{"title":"Need some background on the Kinder Morgan pipeline?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Kinder Morgan pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"transmountain2"},"TZ5CBLLRDFFBHPULSKF6YSH4BQ":{"title":"","altTitle":"What is the Globe's policy on anonymous sources?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"sources"},"2CXUJVXTYZHJLDXFPAGQXI2AQI":{"title":"", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Russia investigation?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"Russia"},"LQXPC74TORHZXHTRBV7CVHQMOE":{"title":"What are cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin, and how do they work?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"crypto_old"},"DXL2TH3RSNC25D6KBGLHWDVAB4":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)", "ref":"nafta"},"RLA3TEY5URCKBEEZVDSLUG7G4U":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"FNRTFJYGIFD2TKJA2EHBRKMAIY":{"altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"nafta"},"3MUN5WPSWVG5FL66NMACSPKPRE":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"tariff"},"XDMXYWKNQZEHBKIVD3JJ76N3DA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)", "ref":"tariff"},"IUAOM57N2RDCDGKLHHVIF4DMDY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"tariff"},"4A3USXWJWBEQ7D3LUW6ZSZQWM4":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","ref":"crypto_old"},"JE7OJLDGFBHPPODMXB7LVPJX7E":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"nafta"},"XXIFKHHGZZCVFFUM3IEYHUCARA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"tariff"},"JA7I3D6CXNDOLLRNID2PQRD5QI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"tariff"},"CNRTPJZYDRE3XORYPLOEYFJINQ":{"altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"ai"},"BGSKGX5H3BFTLFUPP2YTMUEVQM":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(24)","ref":"nafta"},"QXDQAYA3KFCRTDKIVPA5PKLL3Q":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)", "ref":"supply"},"Z2CBNIXBLNGU3JSXG2F54YLXPY":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"Russia"},"SBCM2J6GRFC7FHIMDG3ROO26A4":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"cryptocurrency"},"D42ED7OTCVFHHJRTOJPWTSDW3A":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"NFV4UNJMTBH4LLLGPVFPGGZCYU":{"title":"","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"supply"},"6UGOKZPV5FFPFLSLTDKA2BHB6Y":{"title":"", "altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"supply"},"ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp1":{"time":"25","title":"Need a quick refresher on the Management Expense Ratio (MER)?","text":"MERs are the definitive measure of how much it costs to own a mutual fund

MERs combine the various costs of running a fund \u2013 things like administration, fees for managers and taxes \u2013 and express them as a percentage of the assets in a fund

Fund companies take the fees represented in the MER off the top of fund returns

When you see published returns for a mutual fund, they already reflect the impact of the MER

MERs are charged whether a fund makes or loses money.", "refVal":"ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp1_ref","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(29)"},"ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp2":{"time":"25","title":"Need a quick refresher on how fund-of-fund products work?","text":"Typical mutual funds invest in a selection of stocks, bonds and other securities

Fund-of-fund products, on the other hand, are a popular type of mutual fund that hold other mutual funds

Fund companies typically call their fund-of-fund products \u201cportfolios,\u201d to get across the idea that they hold a variety of different types of funds and provide instant diversification

The MER for fund-of-funds includes the fees of the underlying funds, typically with a small fee premium to cover the cost of managing the portfolio.", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(38)"},"ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp3":{"time":"45","title":"Need a quick catch-up on ETFs?","text":"ETFs began life as a way for investors to buy the returns of popular stock and bond indexes, while paying a much smaller fee than mutual funds charge

Today, traditional index-tracking funds compete with ETFs that use a screening process to find stocks or bonds with particular features (related to price, yield and more) or a human manager who picks what to buy and sell

ETFs are bought and sold like stocks, which means you need a brokerage account to invest in them

You\u2019ll pay commissions of $5 to $10 at an online brokerage firm, although some firms may allow at least a degree of commission-free trading

A growing number of investment advisers are using ETFs as well

They charge an advice fee of something like 1 to 1.5 per cent \u2013 the modest cost of your ETFs would be on top of that.", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(21)","more":[{"text":"On the surface, underperformance by Top 100 funds validates criticism of mutual funds that they chronically lag indexes you can invest in directly at low cost using ETFs

But putting mutual fund and ETF returns side by side is an unfair comparison

Most mutual fund fees include a \u201ctrailing commission,\u201d which goes to advisers and dealers who sell funds to cover ongoing service to clients

A mutual fund investing in stocks would typically have a trailing commission equal to 1 percentage point built into its fee, while bond fund would be at 0.5 per cent

ETFs typically have no trailing commissions."}]}, "ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA":{"query":["ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp3","ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp1","ZO7HDL35BJAGHO2M6D3PJ4DTVA_exp2"]},"CHQIKZUQYBD37OHOX4EJL5NBQI":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"tariff"},"6DCXP3LLC5EKJPZHVEP4SBLVZ4":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence and machine learning?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"ai_old"},"IC633IBBZJGBZORFW2RMK3YFUQ":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)", "ref":"transmountain2"},"4IOZWTEQKZCDZBAOQBK4FJKHUU":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"nafta"},"G5TVBQ2V7VEVFGVSZNMZ7T5LR4":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(17)","ref":"crypto_old"},"N2QHSJI2INDOHFJUWIIFVY2N2E":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"ZQRSAU2BRNFQ7F3NECGX3KW7HY":{"refVal":"westbankgaza", "time":"70","title":"Need a catch-up on the significance of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip?","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the significance of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip?","text":"The West Bank and the Gaza Strip are both areas under Israeli control that are home to more than four million Palestinians in total.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nThe long-standing crisis dates back to the end of British administration over what was then called Palestine

In 1947, the United Nations proposed dividing Palestine into three territories: a Jewish state and an Arab state, plus special status that placed an area encompassing the holy cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem under international administration

Jews had already been moving into the area for decades in what they saw as a bid for a homeland (the ideology that drove this is known as Zionism), but which Palestinians saw as an effort to displace them

The West Bank and the Gaza Strip were both part of a larger area set aside for the Arab state under the UN plan

Palestinians fought back against that plan, as did surrounding Arab nations, leading to a 1948 war that began as soon as the State of Israel was declared.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nBy the end of that war, Israeli forces had claimed more land than was envisioned by the UN plan, and hundreds of thousands of Palestinians had been forced from their homes

Many fled to neighbouring Arab states

Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip, while Jordan held what is now known as the West Bank

Both of those areas were seized by Israel following the second Arab-Israeli War, in 1967.\n", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(23)","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe West Bank\x3c/strong\x3e is a large area on Israel\u2019s eastern border with Jordan that is home to some 2.8-million Palestinians

It has been under Israeli occupation since 1967

While parts of the West Bank are run semi-independently by the Palestinian Authority, Israel has set up walls and military checkpoints that make it difficult for Palestinians to travel even within the territory

The West Bank is also home to more than 400,000 Israelis, living in more than 130 settlements that are considered illegal under international law

A \u201ctwo-state solution\u201d in the peace process would create a Palestinian state spanning at least part of the West Bank \u2013 which includes sites such as Hebron that are considered holy by both Jews and Muslims \u2013 as well as East Jerusalem, which Palestinians claim as their future capital and is also home to 200,000 Israelis

(The peace process has been effectively stalled since 2014.)"}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe Gaza Strip\x3c/strong\x3e is a sliver of land between Israel, Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea that is home to almost two million people who live in extreme poverty

Unlike the West Bank, which is governed by an organization, Fatah, that has engaged in talks with Israel over the years, Gaza is controlled by Hamas, which does not recognize Israel\u2019s right to exist

Hamas\u2019 fight against Israel has included orchestrating suicide bombings there and firing rockets from Gaza into Israel

Although Israel withdrew its soldiers and settlers from Gaza in 2005, it maintains a blockade that restricts the flow of commercial goods into Gaza \u2013 with the avowed purpose of limiting Hamas\u2019s access to materials it could use to build weapons

However, the blockade has also affected Gaza residents\u2019 access to food, clean water, medicine, electricity and fuel

Trade and travel across the border with Egypt is also highly restricted

The conditions in Gaza have sparked protests and violence along the border with Israel, and have raised humanitarian concerns."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eDoes the Golan have anything to do with this?\x3c/strong\x3e The Golan Heights forms Israel\u2019s land border with Syria

Unlike Gaza and the West Bank, the Golan is not central to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict; rather, it is about military strategy and agriculture

Though the Golan is internationally recognized as part of Syria, it has been under Israeli occupation since 1967

Many residents there are Druze \u2013 an offshoot of Shia Islam \u2013 and consider themselves to be Syrians

The Golan is strategically valuable as a vantage point over the surrounding areas

It is also an important source of water in the region."}]}, "CRJ24VXR7VAYHHJ2QVGONQ2I7A":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"MWNJJTHEYNBKFAIPVWHGCY2APE":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"nafta"},"V2AMQF7HZZDB7ODMYHECKUORKM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"QZ6GZV3B3ZEJJH3NP3KJOEIQ7M":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)", "ref":"transmountain2"},"EHFICUXGGFARZLQAN62UFZNRBU":{"refVal":"Zumacorruption_old","time":"25","title":"What are the corruption allegations against Zuma? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the corruption allegations against Zuma?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(20)","text":"Evidence of corruption has dogged former South African president Jacob Zuma for years.\x3cbr/\x3e\x3cbr/\x3eIn 2005, Mr

Zuma\u2019s long-time friend, businessman Schabir Shaik, was sent to prison for soliciting bribes and other payments from an arms contractor on Mr

Zuma\u2019s behalf

The payments were connected to a 1999 government weapons deal worth billions of dollars

A company founded by Mr

Shaik also won a piece of that same deal

Corruption charges were filed against Mr

Zuma in 2005 as well, but within a few years he had them dropped

Those charges were reinstated in 2016

They are the subject of the current trial.", "more":[{"text":"This isn\u2019t the only time he\u2019s been caught up with the law

In 2016, a court found Mr

Zuma had used state funds to pay for upgrades at his village home, including a swimming pool and amphitheatre

He agreed to pay back more than $20-million."},{"text":"During his presidency, Mr

Zuma\u2019s family became close to the Gupta family \u2013 three brothers from India who allegedly used political connections to build a business empire in South Africa

Mr

Zuma\u2019s son, Duduzane, was appointed a director of many Gupta-owned companies

Investigations by South African officials have found that the Guptas wielded influence over the Zuma government, including in cabinet appointments

Both Mr

Zuma and the Guptas have denied this."}]}, "K6H46QSENZFPLHJ6SIBRCRGBUE":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence and machine learning?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(18)","ref":"ai_old"},"OU67FSZX35BT5CUDEARDLX6DHE":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(19)","ref":"G7"},"I2BOLDV46ZH57K4JHWNW5XWHHI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"VZ6ZBV54OND3VGYRGQLP3UVRWA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Russia investigation?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"Russia"},"FUM6BURLAVDETJNLACJ4OGQWMQ":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"FARC"},"BDMUGLB6WFDCLFXZFUGJ6TGYYQ":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)","ref":"FARC"},"DRTNFKVIR5F7THCXLY25YRQRD4":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"Gaza_only"},"PLB53I53IBDQPAHRR5J25XYVIQ":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"transmountain2"},"4IASCGA3KBEUBLTRAACMX7VQQY":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)", "ref":"CapAndTrade"},"6T2UICTRCBBSJP32FKGY34QPLQ":{"time":"45","title":"What is the West Bank and what is its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict? ","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe West Bank\x3c/strong\x3e is a large area on Israel\u2019s eastern border with Jordan that is home to some 2.8-million Palestinians

It has been under Israeli occupation since 1967

While parts of the West Bank are run semi-independently by the Palestinian Authority, Israel has set up walls and military checkpoints that make it difficult for Palestinians to travel even within the territory

The West Bank is also home to more than 400,000 Israelis, living in more than 130 settlements that are considered illegal under international law

A \u201ctwo-state solution\u201d in the peace process would create a Palestinian state spanning at least part of the West Bank \u2013 which includes sites such as Hebron that are considered holy by both Jews and Muslims \u2013 as well as East Jerusalem, which Palestinians claim as their future capital and is also home to 200,000 Israelis

(The peace process has been effectively stalled since 2014.)", "refVal":"westbank_only","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the West Bank and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","more":[{"text":"The long-standing Israeli-Palestinian conflict dates back to the end of British administration over what was then called Palestine

In 1947, the United Nations proposed dividing Palestine into three territories: a Jewish state and an Arab state, plus special status that placed an area encompassing the holy cities of Jerusalem and Bethlehem under international administration

Jews had already been moving into the area for decades in what they saw as a bid for a homeland (the ideology that drove this is known as Zionism), but which Palestinians saw as an effort to displace them

The West Bank and the Gaza Strip were both part of a larger area set aside for the Arab state under the UN plan

Palestinians fought back against that plan, as did surrounding Arab nations, leading to a 1948 war that began as soon as the State of Israel was declared."}, {"text":"By the end of that war, Israeli forces had claimed more land than was envisioned by the UN plan, and hundreds of thousands of Palestinians had been forced from their homes

Many fled to neighbouring Arab states

Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip, while Jordan held what is now known as the West Bank

Both of those areas were seized by Israel following the second Arab-Israeli War, in 1967

Together, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip are home to more than four-million Palestinians

"}]},"ODOTVABTP5C7NIWKZDMMNQXUUY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence and machine learning?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"ai_old"},"F4LEMYQNVZGRRAG6X73KULABGA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on food security?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"FoodSecurity"},"RQ7VPRQ66NFVNFVXBFMTIHXULM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"nafta"},"M7WPPMEF3ZHLZODQUDWRLNE4YI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on vaping and how it works?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"vaping2"}, "MNZGQE4NA5GC3FGKFWY3LQHJGM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G/","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"5G"},"ESDBBF3NUBEG3F6BXADBPDI7BY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"5G"},"SDST5PBJ7BEAREZZOJSNN5ENAI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the conflict in Syria?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"Syria"},"6UMCPELB4BE5HOCNXAEZOBKL6I":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(15)","ref":"transmountain2"},"N3XIQGG7O5BCJMCZ6VBV43UXLM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on supply management?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"supply"},"IJGRUTVQ2RFENENEC7KQMUWVFA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"464MWIMARVGLXPYLU7HD5PK5SM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(29)","ref":"5G"},"MIHBSJCKMZC4DA4IXUKE3EMDOY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"TimHortons"},"BY65EKEHXNGUPCDUCSOISMIE64":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"crypto_old"},"UYPZS67INJFRBJAYRSZS44QVXI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"5G"},"FXBGBBBMMJG6JJQSYZINH2E4GM":{"altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"asylum"},"TVUQOQEOWZDSLKJNMXTSBZHQKM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"CVUNV2SEQJCYBMVUI2CGQVPDC4":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"transmountain2"},"FEEYM2HO6JADTIJW5HSSJYGVRI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","ref":"nafta"},"VYITFJPRY5FZHJ4LU2QRKM6LN4":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on what is driving the increased flow of asylum seekers across the Canada-U.S

border? ", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"asylum"},"Z75LDCGKDZEETMN3IMKTNYSBZY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(12)","ref":"tariff"},"TGPQSWPBL5DQREFJMNAAKPUUYM":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on supply management?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(26)","ref":"supply"},"LDOM4DNGZ5DHHL3UCWVBAKQ4EQ":{"altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(8)","ref":"asylum"},"7JPZLADWVJE4JBN64JPCND64TA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"tariff"},"G3W44LM7DJG43EUF2DB43GKGOQ":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"crypto_old"},"DRWXCAZ2ZRDZDAMMHDD2IF2IFA":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"Gaza_only"},"7CYOBJGM6RHX3EYHIQX26DOPKA":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on Europe\u2019s new privacy laws?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"GDPR"},"4DTDELSCF5FHFFW2FKPVHBQXKY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"nafta"},"QIH76JLLYVGUVBESKGQ2JSUBBA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on blockchain technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(27)","ref":"blockchain"},"WP7TYJ7F45FEDO6WBJE453ULNI":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"GEH5YG2HOFFFLNZO56CQI4G34Y":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on why market indexes like the Dow matter?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(30)","ref":"dow_index"},"M45PLZQ4FNFA3DRG57EM6ATX64":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrency mining?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","ref":"CryptocurrencyMiner"},"VCSJZMO6XBFDRCE3D5RZIP4KDA":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"softwood"},"SQQGXHHGLVCCXGSAANROAPGBUQ":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on market indexes like the Dow and why they matter?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"dow_index"},"T5DRC2HYNFEHBOGKVPRYIOV2KQ":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"4RFRUNL2VNCQ3APBJPH3ZLW5QA":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on supply management?", "query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"supply"},"GAKGD2HNHBAYRMV5T6SX6TELME":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(26)","ref":"nafta"},"E7D7R45SDNDAVJHL5EDK4RY4VI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"nafta"},"VGX7WSNQABGUPA5O7NJKBEF5TU":{"title":"How is 5G changing wireless technology?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(22)", "ref":"5G"},"AQWGRTXTTVAMNNRP2ZXOK35BWM":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"softwood"},"NYM3FYEUEVFCJJJFEDH6DTNOGU":{"title":"What are the G7 countries?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the G7?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(21)","ref":"G7"},"NQKM4ESBOJDORI54BQNP2IMS7Q":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"Gaza_only"},"ZEL4NW6BWJGINFFWWJE7J2OQLI":{"time":"45","title":"How does a carbon tax work? ","text":"A \x3cstrong\x3ecarbon tax\x3c/strong\x3e makes companies and consumers pay for every tonne of carbon burned \u2013 just like drivers pay by the litre to burn gas in their cars, but at a larger scale

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nA carbon tax is not the same thing as a \x3cstrong\x3ecap-and-trade\x3c/strong\x3e system, which sets a limit on the amount of carbon that companies are permitted to burn when operating in the territory where the system is in place

This system also offers the option for companies to buy the right to burn more than their quota, by purchasing permits (also known as carbon credits) from companies that burn less

By doing that, they exchange their right to emit greenhouse gases; that\u2019s the \u201ctrade\u201d part

The government also makes money on those permits, since it runs the auctions for them.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\nBoth a carbon tax and cap-and-trade have the same goal: to give people a financial incentive to reduce emissions

They just go about it differently.\n", "refVal":"carbontax","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on carbon taxes? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(36)","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho does cap-and-trade in Canada?\x3c/strong\x3e Quebec has had a system in place since 2013, and later joined up with California so that credits could be traded between those territories

Ontario implemented its system last year, and committed to joining Quebec and California in future auctions

Doug Ford has vowed to scrap this plan when he becomes premier."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWho has a carbon tax?\x3c/strong\x3e British Columbia, since 2008."},{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eCould there be more soon?\x3c/strong\x3e In 2018, the federal government announced legislation that would require every province to implement a carbon-pricing system by 2019

The move follows a commitment to greenhouse gas reduction targets that the Trudeau government signed at the Paris climate conference in 2015; since then it has faced resistance to a national carbon-pricing framework from some provinces, particularly Saskatchewan."}]}, "AH3KSEPSWVHD5KL63OFEPCHTAQ":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"tariff"},"XSY2OTUPBBCHHDODJ77ADHRI6E":{"time":"40","title":"What is Hamas? ","text":"Palestinian politics are dominated by two organizations: Hamas and Fatah

Both want an independent Palestinian state, and both have political support from significant numbers of Palestinians, though they have very different approaches to Israel

\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eHamas\x3c/strong\x3e is a militant organization that is an offshoot of the international Muslim Brotherhood movement

Hamas does not recognize Israel\u2019s right to exist \u2013 and from its founding, has regularly called for the destruction of the Jewish state

It controls the Gaza Strip, a slice of land in the west of Israel along the Mediterranean Sea, which shares a small part of Israel\u2019s southwest border with Egypt

Hamas rocket attacks against Israel, and its history of orchestrating suicide bombings, provided a rationale for Israel to impose a blockade on Gaza that has decimated its economy and infrastructure, and restricted residents\u2019 access to food, electricity, fuel and other crucial supplies.\n", "refVal":"Hamas_only","altTitle":"Need a refresher on Hamas and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)","more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eFatah\x3c/strong\x3e is a secular movement that currently runs the government of the West Bank, in Israel\u2019s east, under Israeli occupation

While it also engaged in armed conflict with Israel in the 1960s \u2013 and still maintains an armed wing called the al-Aqsa Martyrs\u2019 Brigades \u2013 Fatah has been open to diplomatic negotiations with Israel."}]}, "ZEJYYOEN3VDZ5MEQZBAKEFNUXM":{"title":"What is the Globe and Mail's policy on anonymous sources?","altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"majority requested anonymity, citing similar fears as Ms

Bruce and Ms

Reid.","ref":"sources"},"7U5YBONMZFAZ7MU25TXQEVXGFE":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on Canada's carbon pricing strategies?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Canada's carbon pricing strategies?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(16)","ref":"CapAndTrade"}, "AFWANPBIOJCLRCSMBJIFK5VVOA":{"refVal":"PLO_only","title":"What is the PLO?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the PLO and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","time":"35","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(20)","text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)\x3c/strong\x3e\u202fis a national organization represents Palestinians at the United Nations, and takes part in peace talks with Israel when they occur

(The peace process has been effectively stalled since 2014.) The PLO encompasses many political parties, of which Fatah is the most dominant

Fatah leads a placeholder government that runs the West Bank under Israeli occupation

However, the militant organization Hamas \u2013 which controls the Gaza Strip under an Israeli blockade \u2013 does not recognize Israel\u2019s right to exist, and is not part of the PLO

Because of that, the PLO\u2019s role as a unified representative of the Palestinian people has been questioned \u2013 particularly since any peace deal would require an agreement with Hamas as well

", "more":[{"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eThe Palestinian Authority (PA)\x3c/strong\x3e is not the same thing as the PLO

The PA is essentially a placeholder government meant to run the Palestinian territories until a deal can be reached with Israel

It runs the West Bank under Israeli occupation, but does not run the Gaza Strip

Opponents criticize the government for cooperating with that occupation

Fatah, a secular movement, currently leads that government

While Fatah engaged in armed conflict with Israel in the 1960s \u2013 and still maintains an armed wing called the al-Aqsa Martyrs\u2019 Brigades \u2013 it has been open to diplomatic negotiations with Israel

The PA does not run the Gaza Strip \u2013 another Palestinian territory in a sliver of land in the west of Israel, which is under Israeli blockade

Gaza is controlled, rather, by Hamas, a militant organization that is an offshoot of the international Muslim Brotherhood movement

From its founding, Hamas has regularly called for the destruction of the Jewish state."}]}, "P7JIOLXBKFCA3LVFQFZ6SUZKIU":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"tariff"},"RWCD2J43ZNDIDCNKTCFEDLN54U":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on Trans Mountain?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"transmountain2"},"4PBCM7VULFBEHBBXCUYQCXFL5Y":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","ref":"tariff"},"GQ7DEREEN5CXPHSJQOTDEY7PXU":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)", "ref":"CapAndTrade"},"2OFAEUUPIZEB5KRUUZQLWHGVHY":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on the dispute between Tim Hortons and its franchisees?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","ref":"TimHortons"},"RGUMK3Y56NAF3F2F5ROXMIHXFI":{"time":"35","title":"What makes a wine ros\u00e9? Is it just white and red wine mixed together?","text":"Grape juice is white, whether the grapes are white or red; a wine\u2019s pigment comes from grape skins

Red wines get their colour by keeping the juice in contact with the skins throughout fermentation

To obtain the pink hue of ros\u00e9, winemakers leave red skins in contact with the juice for only a short period before removing them to complete fermentation

In rare cases \u2013 notably, some pink champagnes \u2013 a splash of red wine is added to white, but the practice is otherwise generally frowned upon

Ros\u00e9, in a sense, is just light-coloured red wine

But from an enjoyment perspective, it\u2019s best to think of it as a white wine with some colour

Pink wines are designed to be chilled.", "refVal":"Wine_rose","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on how ros\u00e9 wine is made?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(4)"},"TIKD3P5VJVDSFEYFZQ5YLLLCL4":{"query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"LRM3FEYVB5D6DP327WBUTRXYYM":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(23)","ref":"tariff"},"EWBCN43O2JGY3FLDJXWSEH4AQE":{"time":"40","title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work? ", "text":"Cryptocurrency, broadly, is electronic cash; unlike a typical currency such as the Canadian dollar, it\u2019s not controlled by any single authority like a central bank, government or financial institution

Bitcoin was the first type of cryptocurrency \u2013 and is still the best-known one

It emerged in early 2009 in the wake of the global financial crisis.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\n\x3cstrong\x3eHow does it work?\x3c/strong\x3e Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin have all their transactions recorded in a public ledger, with buyers\u2019 and sellers\u2019 identities hidden using cryptography (that\u2019s where the \u201ccrypto\u201d in the name comes from.) The idea is that the currency is secure because the ledger is not stored on a single machine that could be vulnerable to hacking or manipulation; instead, a network of computers work together to create a shared record of all the transaction data (sort of like a bank ledger), called the \u201cblockchain.\u201d", "refVal":"crypto_only","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","more":[{"text":"The computers that contribute to that network are called \u201ccryptocurrency miners.\u201d They secure that information by solving complex, automatically-generated math puzzles; each time a miner does that, others in the network verify the work and then that block of data is added to the \u201cblockchain\u201d \u2013 the system of shared information that makes the currency work

Cryptocurrency exchanges sell the currency in online marketplaces such as Bitstamp, Coinbase, Cryptsy, and many others, and some are sold at specialty bank machines

The supply of bitcoins is finite: their programming caps the total number at about 21-million coins

That makes cryptocurrency different from typical currency: a central bank can choose to print more money."}, {"text":"\x3cstrong\x3eWhy you\u2019re hearing so much about this:\x3c/strong\x3e At first, the value of cryptocurrencies was zero (that\u2019s still the case for some types.) But some, like bitcoin, have seen their value skyrocket \u2013 however, some warn this is a bubble, and those values could evaporate just as easily

Concerns have also been raised about cryptocurrency being used by people who want to hide financial dealings, such as terrorists, drug traffickers, money launderers and ransomware creators (people who hack others\u2019 computers and demand ransom for the return of their information and other valuable files.) Cryptocurrencies\u2019 future value will depend partly on the extent to which they can be used like money: most major retailers do not yet accept payment via cryptocurrency, though some online stores are experimenting with it."}]}, "E5XWWPURZJFIRHNOMZDJVKXHGY":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)","ref":"5G"},"WM22VIGHWRDIJANG2BCJCGGUPI":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on NAFTA?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(20)","ref":"nafta"},"Y2DB6RACPFDVZF75A7VKNBXMYU":{"altTitle":"","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"asylum"},"X3PLNCXUDZG2HDSESAPQGLMHEY":{"altTitle":"Need a refresher on the Trans Mountain pipeline project?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(11)", "ref":"transmountain2"},"6K3Y6SGY7ZEXZIB7FMYCZMV47I":{"altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on supply management?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(34)","ref":"supply"},"OI7HJPPQXZGYDBIMO76ZGSWJJY":{"time":"30","title":"What is a hate crime?","text":"Broadly, this term is used when a crime (such as arson, assault, vandalism, threats, and others) is motivated by hate or prejudice against a group based on their ethnicity, gender, religion, race, sexual orientation, or other aspects of their identity

The law instructs judges to hand down longer sentences for crimes where evidence shows they were motivated by hate

Under Canadian law, advocating or promoting genocide is a crime, and so is publicly inciting hatred of an \u201cidentifiable group,\u201d if it is \u201clikely to result in a breach of the peace,\u201d according to the Criminal Code

Punishments can include prison time

", "refVal":"hatecrime","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on how Canadian law defines a hate crime?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(17)"},"DFDWAOOSIVF7HCVGXGMUAKWNSA":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(6)","ref":"tariff"},"EGY3YCYXFNGF5ENPNFHCUPCIXU":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(5)","ref":"tariff"}, "ZF672AKWMFFWNMZVXBEDEYX264":{"title":"What are market indexes like the Dow and why do they matter?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on market indexes like the Dow and why they matter?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"MarketIndex"},"LVN6KEMKBFFHDINC46VDB2RPUY":{"title":"Need a quick catch-up on tariffs?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on tariffs?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(9)","ref":"tariff"},"VQDQ5DSU65G7DEOYW34FQ6NSNI":{"title":"What is cap-and-trade?", "altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"emissions or being able to sell extra ones for cash","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"XIH3DPSZ7ZCNBFFER7KZNGHP4M":{"title":"What is cryptocurrency and how does it work? ","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cryptocurrencies, and how they work?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"outdoor spire towers above the city\u2019s skyscrapers.","ref":"crypto_only"},"RJOK2SLOCZC4JFVYYUC2O5PI7E":{"title":"What is the Gaza Strip, and what is its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?", "altTitle":"Need a refresher on the Gaza Strip, and its role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","textLine":"","ref":"Gaza_only"},"IOMUYY2RDNEKTMBV46LJD6IEBI":{"time":"60","title":"Need some background on assisted dying laws in Canada? ","text":"Physician-assisted dying was outlawed in Canada until 2015, when the Supreme Court of Canada struck down a Criminal Code prohibition against it

That decision paved the way for the federal medical-aid-in-dying (MAiD) law, which took effect in 2016

The law applies only to adults who are mentally competent and able to give informed consent without being influenced or pressured by anyone else

It is also limited to people who have a serious illness or disability; who are in an \u201cadvanced state of decline that cannot be reversed\u201d; who suffer unbearable physical or mental pain that can\u2019t be relieved in what the patient considers acceptable; and whose death is \u201creasonably foreseeable.\u201d All of those criteria must apply, not just one

Suicide is already legal in Canada; encouraging someone to die by suicide is illegal

The MAiD law makes an exception for doctors, nurse practitioners, and pharmacists to provide counsel and assistance to eligible patients

Hundreds of people have died with medical help since the practice became legal

The Supreme Court has declared that the procedure is protected by the Charter of Rights and Freedoms (which is part of our Constitution and enshrines civil and political rights including freedom of religion, voting rights, the right to legal representation, and others).", "refVal":"assisted_dying","altTitle":"Need a catch-up on assisted dying laws in Canada?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)","more":[{"text":"While the procedure is legal, the law does not require doctors to help eligible patients to die

Some have opted not to

Others have asked for clarifications on some aspects of the legislation

In some provinces, coroners\u2019 offices are reviewing assisted death cases to ensure they comply with the law

Many religious health-care organizations (such as long-term care homes with religious affiliations) have refused to allow the procedure in their facilities, preferring to focus on palliative care to ease suffering associated with a natural death

Patients have had to be transferred out of such facilities in order to have the procedure done

"}]}, "QU5XB47BZVBSZPY7YCFVULFKCA":{"title":"What is 5G?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on 5G technology?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(10)","textLine":"","ref":"5G"},"PXUV3OT7HJGPPLO5BGF5BTJX24":{"title":"What is cap-and-trade?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on cap-and-trade? ","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()","textLine":"subsidies will quickly meet a similar fate","ref":"CapAndTrade"},"KJ6GQFX6I5DNXKK7BOJLGXLJHA":{"time":"75","title":"Why is Mali in crisis?","text":"Mali, a former French colony in Western Africa, is one of the world\u2019s poorest nations

It has struggled with drought and famine, and is one of the most foreign-aid-dependent countries in the world

Since winning independence from France in 1960, it has faced tensions with the nomadic Tuareg people, who live in the north and in neighbouring Niger

They want their own country and have staged rebellions in the past

Mali wrested itself from more than 20 years of brutal dictatorship in the early 1990s, holding its first democratic elections and earning a reputation as a model of stability and democracy in Africa.\x3cbr\x3e\x3cbr\x3e\nBut things have gotten much worse since 2011, when the downfall of Libyan dictator Moammar Gadhafi scattered fighters who had supported him across the continent, along with their weapons

This included some Tuareg fighters, who were trained and aided by Islamist militias

In 2012, they seized power in northern Mali and declared an independent country called Azawad

Islamist forces imposed a harsh interpretation of sharia law there

Facing northern rebels seizing more territory, Mali\u2019s government fell to a military coup that same year

In 2013, France intervened

Air strikes drove the rebels back

Subsequent peace agreements gave the Tuareg more autonomy in the north

But armed groups, including Islamist extremists, are still an active threat

Officially, Mali returned to democracy with elections in 2013

But the government has little control over the country

The ongoing UN peacekeeping mission there has faced heavy casualties

Canada announced in March, 2018, that it would send helicopters and troops to support the mission.", "refVal":"Mali_crisis","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on the crisis in Mali?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(3)"},"ZORBDPJ6DFHL5DVB5RFTCQZMRA":{"title":"What is a special counsel? ","altTitle":"Need a refresher on the role of a special counsel?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child(2)","textLine":"","ref":"SpecialCounsel"},"DFWDBUHZOZFQPDULDICHFBTBGQ":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence?","altTitle":"Need a quick refresher on artificial intelligence?","query":".c-article-body__text:nth-child()", "textLine":"generally is going to be a theme this year","ref":"ai_old3"},"BA4C4CV3J5BADOPLIMY4OBLEWA":{"title":"What is artificial intelligence? Is it different from machine learning? 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Fatah, a secular movement, currently leads that government

Mr

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